How Many Eyes Does A Brown Recluse Have?

How Many Eyes Does A Brown Recluse Have
Of the more than 3,700 species of spiders in the United States, only about a dozen are considered medically important. Those species fall into two groups, the brown spiders ( Loxosceles spp.) and the widow spiders ( Latrodectus spp.). Several species of brown spiders, also known as violin or fiddle-back spiders, inhabit the southwestern United States.

  1. But the brown recluse ( Loxosceles reclusa ) occurs in roughly the southeastern quarter of the country, and is by far the most common and widespread of the brown spiders.
  2. Three species of black widow spiders are widespread in the United States.
  3. The black widow ( Latrodectus mactans ) inhabits the southern half of the country.

Most common in northern states such as Illinois is the northern black widow ( L. variolus ) which is replaced in the Southwest by the western black widow ( L. hesperus ). BROWN RECLUSE SPIDER True to its name, the brown recluse is both brown and reclusive. The body of an adult brown recluse is light brown, except for a darker, violin-shaped marking on the back, immediately behind its eyes. This mark helps identify the spider, though it develops as the spider does and is not present in young brown recluses. While females build flat, sheet-like webs, or “retreats,” that may help them capture prey, the brown recluse should be thought of as a hunting spider because males, in particular, roam in search of prey. Brown recluse are most active at night. During the day they rest in hidden locations within the structures they infest.

  1. They are fond of building their retreats and resting on wooden surfaces, such as inside furniture, cardboard boxes, wall voids and in the wood framing of crawlspaces, basements and attics.
  2. They are not often found far from structures.
  3. Most infested structures did not become so by brown recluse traveling over land from one house to another.

Moreover, brown recluse do not “balloon,” that is, they do not use silk strands to disperse by wind as other spiders do. Most structures become infested when brown recluse “hitchhike” indoors on furniture, boxes and other items from infested structures.

  • The spiders are well-adapted for establishing themselves by hitchhiking.
  • They are long-lived, can go for many months without eating, and are adapted to the hot, dry conditions found in many structures.
  • What’s more, a female brown recluse needs to mate only once to produce eggs throughout her life, and can produce 150 or more spiderlings in a year.

Thus, a single female hitchhiking into a structure is all it takes to establish an infestation. The need to inspect items before moving them in is clear. Once established within a structure, brown recluse are often difficult to control. Though hundreds of brown recluse may be present in a house, they may not be easily observed because of their reclusive, nocturnal habits.

Even when exposed, brown recluse are fast runners and difficult to catch with a vacuum cleaner, fly swatter or shoe. Successful brown recluse control requires an integrated management plan that utilizes several control methods. Management plans employing only one means of control, such as spraying baseboards, will fail.

One valuable method is to deny the spiders access to hiding places. Typical hiding places include garages, crawlspaces, attics, wall voids, cracks and voids around fireplaces, cabinets, furniture, boxes and stored goods. The importance of eliminating clutter from the structure cannot be overemphasized.

  • Boxes and other items stored for long periods of time are ready harborages for brown recluse.
  • Stored goods should be eliminated or placed in plastic bags, tubs or other containers that seal tightly.
  • Cracks and crevices should be sealed with caulk, expandable foam, weather stripping, screen or other materials to prevent the spiders from entering them and gaining access to structural voids.

Seal around fireplaces, vents, door and window frames, crawlspace and attic doors, and where cabinets, counters and baseboards meet walls, to permanently prevent brown recluse, and other pests as well, from harboring there. Another invaluable method essential to victory in any war against the brown recluse spider is the use of sticky monitors. Sticky traps stop brown recluse “in their tracks” and help control other pests the spiders may use as food. Keep the traps out of the reach of pets and small children. Place them on the floor against walls, behind furniture and in other out-of-the-way locations where brown recluse are likely to travel.

  • Sticky traps can be purchased from lawn-and-garden centers, hardware and discount stores, pest control companies and distributors, do-it-yourself pest control suppliers and the Internet.
  • Though sticky traps may be less than attractive in your living room, you cannot use too many of them.
  • Using 50 or more in the average home should not be considered excessive.

The more traps you place, the more likely you are to catch the spiders. Not only do the traps kill brown recluse, they also help pinpoint “hotspots” of brown recluse activity – places to focus control efforts on, such as pesticide applications. Pesticides are often a necessary part of brown recluse management.

Applications should be targeted on cracks and voids – where brown recluse are known or suspected to be. A larger volume of pesticides may be called for in infested crawlspaces and attics, or around foundation perimeters when brown recluse are found living around a structure’s exterior. Encapsulated formulations of residual pesticides are effective in this role.

Also, some dust formulations (pesticides in powdered form) are a good choice for treating spaces such as wall voids. The use of aerosol foggers is generally ineffective because brown recluse may be hidden so deeply inside items that the “fog” cannot contact them, and those spiders that are contacted may not be killed but driven deeper into hiding.

  1. Directed space treatments, where the fog is injected into voids, may achieve better results, though this type of treatment typically requires professionals using specialized equipment.
  2. Eliminating brown recluse spiders from an infested structure may take months.
  3. Time to elimination depends on the type of structure, the indoor environment and, of course, the effort put forth in trapping and locating the spiders, cleaning and sealing their hiding places, and applying pesticides effectively.

The bad news is that it may be virtually impossible, short of an expensive fumigation of the premises, to completely eradicate brown recluse from some structures. The good news, such as it is, is that persons living even in heavily infested structures are very rarely bitten by brown recluse.

Perhaps no other American spider has fostered so many myths and misrepresentations as the brown recluse. Misunderstanding and misinformation about the distribution and prevalence of the brown recluse is often as exaggerated as the imagined consequences of the brown recluse’s bite. The spider’s reputation has suffered at the hands of uninformed public, media, pest control operators and physicians.

Brown recluse do bite people. And the bites can result in serious medical complications including disfiguring wounds. Yet bites are uncommon – even though brown recluse are common in some parts of the United States. The spider is, after all, reclusive, not aggressive toward people, and prefers to run rather than bite.

  1. This explains why people can live in a house with thousands of brown recluse, without being bitten.
  2. Bites typically occur when the spider is trapped between the skin and clothing or bedding.
  3. Therefore, clothing and bedding, especially those that have not been used for awhile, should be inspected prior to use in infested structures.

The recluse’s largely undeserved reputation often comes to mind when brown-colored spiders are discovered in the home, or when nasty-looking skin lesions appear. It’s estimated that the majority of spider bites diagnosed as “brown recluse bites” are actually attributable to other medical conditions.

The frequent misdiagnosis of necrotic injuries is evident in numerous reports of brown recluse bites from areas not inhabited by brown recluse. Brown recluse are extremely rare outside their known range (see illustration), yet “brown recluse spider bite” remains a catch-all diagnosis for necrotic wounds.

Diabetes, impetigo, Lyme disease, tularemia, cutaneous anthrax, necrotizing fasciitis, Staphylococcus aureus infection and other maladies can produce necrotic wounds that resemble brown recluse bites, making diagnosis difficult or impossible without witnesses to the bite, collection of the spider, and its identification as a brown recluse by someone familiar with the species. Note: The brown recluse has been collected in other areas (e.g., in northeastern Illinois) but should be considered rare outside its range as shown above. Many brown recluse bites result in only redness and swelling around the bite and are no more serious than a bee sting.

  1. The severity of the wound may depend on the amount of venom injected.
  2. Male brown recluse probably account for most bites because they roam more than females and are often encountered.
  3. Males possess about half as much venom as females, and may produce bites that are less severe.
  4. Most brown recluse bites do not result in the large, necrotic wounds often depicted as the typical outcome of brown recluse bites.

More severe necrosis probably occurs in less than 10 percent of cases. Horrific tales of rampant necrosis from brown recluse bites causing the amputation of arms, legs and noses are undoubtedly exaggerations or attributable to uncontrolled bacterial infection or other unrelated conditions.

  1. Death from brown recluse bites has been reported, but is extremely rare and probably occurs only in very young or infirm individuals.
  2. The brown recluse’s bite is usually painless and not felt by the bitten person.
  3. Symptoms of the bite vary but generally include the following: redness, swelling and a burning sensation developing around the bite within one hour.

The red area may enlarge over the next eight hours, and the bite may blister to resemble a bad pimple. Within 24 hours the wound becomes a hardened lump up to 2 inches in diameter, and a scab forms. The wound typically heals within eight weeks. If skin around the bite becomes purplish, necrosis is likely. Not all widow spiders are black. But in the United States, adult females of the three most common widows are almost always a shiny black. The familiar “hourglass” marking located on the underside of the female’s bulb-shaped abdomen is bright red or red-orange.

In northern black widows ( Latrodectus variolus ), the upper and lower halves of the hourglass are separated into two red spots, while the marking on the southern black widow ( L. mactans ) is represented by a single, red, hourglass-shaped mark. There is, however, considerable variation among individual widow spiders.

Some have no hourglass markings. Most have a smaller red spot near the tip of the abdomen. There may be a line of red spots on the upper side of the abdomen, and northern widows often have white streaks on the sides of their abdomens. Adult female widow spiders have bodies up to ½-inch long. Contrary to popular belief, a male black widow is not always eaten by the female after mating. Some males live to mate another day. Females can live three or more years. Mating occurs in or near the female’s web which is irregular in shape except for a short funnel-shaped portion in which the female hides.

The webs measure about one foot in all directions and are typically found in dark, sheltered spots such as in animal burrows, around the bases of rocks, bushes, woodpiles or around the foundations of structures. Egg sacs are often seen in the webs. The sacs are about the size of a large pea and usually contain more than 200 eggs.

The spiderlings that hatch from them disperse to new locations by extruding a long strand of silk that is taken aloft by the wind, a process known as “ballooning” that can transport the baby spider to locations several miles away. Because of their habit of remaining in webs that are purposely built in out-of-the-way locations, bites from black widows are uncommon. Bites may occur when fingers or toes, for example, are stuck into the spider’s web. But black widows usually prefer to run away rather than stand and fight intruders.

Most bites occur when the spider is actually touched or pinned against something. Male widow spiders are not considered dangerous. The bite of the female black widow is often felt as a sharp pin-prick. The neurotoxic venom typically causes chest pain, muscle tightness and cramping. Pain may spread to the person’s abdomen.

Swelling can occur in the extremities but rarely around the bite. Other symptoms have been recorded but are less common. Symptoms usually begin to decline after 48 hours and are gone within five days, but milder symptoms may persist for weeks. The more severe symptoms may not occur, and many people bitten by widow spiders do not require treatment of any kind.

  • Bites very rarely result in death.
  • Children and the infirm are at greatest risk for complications.
  • Denying widow spiders a place to build webs can help prevent them from coming in contact with people and pets.
  • Filing holes and voids, sealing cracks and crevices, reducing outdoor lighting (so as not to attract insects on which the spiders feed), keeping vegetation away from structures and disposing of outdoor debris helps make an environment unfavorable to spiders.

Controlling black widow spiders also involves inspecting structures and yards for the presence of the spiders and their webs. This is best done at night because black widows hide during the day and hang in their webs at night. Like other cobweb spiders, black widows can be dispatched by vacuuming, if care is taken not to release the spiders when emptying the vacuum cleaner.

Smashing them with fly swatters, boards and shoes will work as well, as the spiders are not aggressive and cannot run away fast. Treating them directly with a contact pesticide is another option. Lastly, applications of residual pesticides, such as wettable powders or encapsulates, to crawlspaces and around foundations can also deter these and other types of spiders.

Images and illustrations courtesy of United States Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Nebraska, University of Kentucky, and Richard Vetter – NOTE: When pesticides are used, it is the applicator’s legal responsibility to read and follow directions on the product label.

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Where are the eyes on a brown recluse?

3. Eye Pattern – Almost all spiders have eight eyes, but Brown recluse spiders only have six. These eyes are arranged in three pairs of two, The two pairs on the sides of the spider’s head are slightly higher. The pair in the center is slightly lower. Brown recluse spider’s eyes are very small and black, making them difficult to see.

  • Other spiders may have the same eye structure, but not the recluses’ violin mark and color uniformity.
  • Obviously, we don’t recommend getting too close to the spider you’re identifying.
  • If you’re very worried about the spider, or it’s already bitten you, attempt to trap it before examining it.
  • You could also examine it once it’s dead.

Show it to your doctor or pest expert, We’ll be able to positively identify it for you using a magnifier.

How rare is a brown recluse?

Medical Importance – Multiple studies have found that “brown recluse bites” are overdiagnosed and the majority of “bites” are misdiagnoses of other issues, including poison ivy, chemical burns, and diabetic ulcers. Within their native range, brown recluse can be common and abundant in homes, yet confirmed bites are rarely reported (one study reported a home in which more than 2,000 spiders were collected over a six-month period, yet the residents hadn’t been bitten in six years).

When bites do occur, it is usually because a spider is trapped against the skin and feels threatened, such as when someone puts on shoes that were left out overnight or rolls over a spider while sleeping. Outside their native range (which includes Pennsylvania), brown recluse are restricted to buildings and are almost exclusively brought in by humans (such as when someone moves from an area where brown recluse are native).

They are therefore extremely rare and localized. They are not found outdoors, and the risk of being bitten is virtually nonexistent. Brown recluse bites are commonly thought to cause large, necrotic lesions. While this can occur, they are rare. Approximately 90 percent of brown recluse bites result in no reaction or a small (~5 millimeter), red papule that heals on its own.

Approximately 10 percent of bites result in dermonecrotic lesions. These lesions develop over the course of two weeks, during which the skin surrounding the bite turns black, dries out, and eventually sloughs off. These bites take two to four months to fully heal. Dermonecrosis is exaggerated in obese victims because of the increased destruction of poorly vascularized adipose tissue.

Less than 1 percent of bites result in systemic symptoms that include hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. These symptoms are most common in children and can be fatal in 12–36 hours, so they do represent a true medical emergency. In summary, brown recluse bites are commonly reported, but they are actually relatively rare where brown recluse natively occur, and virtually nonexistent where they are not native.

How big is the biggest brown recluse?

Brown Recluse (Violin Spider) Loxoscelidae (venomous six-eyed spiders) in the order Araneae (spiders) The name “violin spider” describes a characteristic marking on the brown recluse: there is a violin-shaped patch on the broad, almost heart-shaped cephalothorax (the head, as opposed to the abdomen).

  1. The overall color is usually a grayish yellow-brown, the oblong abdomen covered with fine gray hairs.
  2. The legs are darker than the body and are long and slim.
  3. Females are larger then males.
  4. The webs, associated with egg sacs, are small, irregular, and untidy.
  5. These spiders are usually seen walking or running around, not in a web.

Length: females to ¼ inch, not counting legs; including legs in a typical pose, they are about 1 inch long. About Land Invertebrates in Missouri Invertebrates are animals without backbones, including earthworms, slugs, snails, and arthropods. Arthropods—invertebrates with “jointed legs” — are a group of invertebrates that includes crayfish, shrimp, millipedes, centipedes, mites, spiders, and insects.

What is the deadliest spider in the world?

What’s the Most Poisonous Spider in the World? – How Many Eyes Does A Brown Recluse Have Sydney funnel-web spider. According to the Guinness World Records, the Sydney funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus, is the most dangerous spider to humans in the world. Native to Australia, this poisonous spider is found in moist habitats such as under logs or in gardens.

  • Large, black and shiny, the Sydney funnel-web has a venom potency of 0.2 mg/kg as a lethal dose for humans.
  • To avoid an encounter, look for the trademark silk trip lines that spread out from their burrows.
  • Fun fact: The female Sydney funnel-web is four to six times less potent than the male.
  • So if you do come across one, let luck be a lady.

Thankfully, anti-venom was developed in 1981, so this bite is no longer a death sentence if you get help quickly.

Do brown recluse spiders have 6 eyes?

What does a brown recluse look like? – A brown recluse has a dark brown violin shape on the cephalothorax (the portion of the body to which the legs attach). The neck of the violin points backward toward the abdomen. However, what you should look at instead is the eye pattern of 6 eyes in pairs with a space separating the pairs.

  • Six eyes arranged in pairs, with one pair in front and a pair on either side.
  • A dark violin shape on the cephalothorax.
  • Uniformly light-colored legs – no stripes, no bands
  • Uniformly colored abdomen which can vary from cream to dark brown depending on what it has eaten, however, it will never have two colors of pigment at the same time. (The little discoloration on the spider above left is the heart which can be seen through the thin skin.)
  • No spines on the legs, only fine hairs
  • Recluses make small retreat webs behind objects, never out in the open.
  • It is about 3/8 of an inch in body length.

All of the specimens shown below have been submitted to me as brown recluses!!!!!! None of the spiders below should be considered dangerous.

Do recluse spiders have 6 eyes?

OTHER SIX-EYED SPECIES – The brown recluse has six eyes arranged in three pairs, but there are several other spiders with six eyes. Here are two common examples:

The woodlouse spider ( Dysdera crocata ) is a specialist on woodlice — crustaceans that we commonly refer to as pillbugs (roly polies) and sowbugs. These spiders have greatly enlarged jaws and present a fearsome image. They are found where pillbugs and sowbugs are common, and are regularly found in homes. Sticky traps on ground-level slab floors may catch a surprising number of them where there are a lot of pillbugs. Like all our spiders, they won’t bite unless you handle them roughly, but they can deliver a painful nip. Like brown recluse spiders, they commonly are found in sticky traps. How Many Eyes Does A Brown Recluse Have The spitting spider also has six eyes, but should not be mistaken for a brown recluse. PHOTO: MARK SHEPERDIGIAN, BCE One of our most intriguing spiders is the spitting spider ( Scytodes spp.), which also has only six eyes. Spitting spiders are named for their unique method of subduing their prey: They eject a sticky fluid that can glue prey to one spot, so they can safely approach to deliver a fatal bite. Surprisingly, the spitting spider specializes in eating other spiders. They can build a web and wait for other spiders, but they will also approach webs and lure the unsuspecting resident spider to the edge — where deadly aim with their “glue gun” can pin the spider to its own web. Most spitting spider species are quite small, but even the largest shouldn’t be mistaken for a brown recluse.

Are brown recluse friendly?

How Dangerous Are Brown Recluse Spiders In Aiken? There is no doubt that a brown recluse spider bite can be dangerous. The venom of a brown recluse can have necrotic properties. If necrosis spreads underneath the skin, it is difficult to tell because the necrosis causes nerve endings to die, so the pain does not register as it should.

  • This is why some brown recluse spider bites have led to severe disfiguring wounds.
  • But these wounds are rare.
  • Today, we’re going to discuss the level of danger brown recluse spiders present in Aiken homes and how you can reduce the risk of getting bitten.
  • It stands to reason that a spider that doesn’t bite you isn’t dangerous to you, right? There are a few reasons you may never have one of these spiders bite you.

Reclusiveness : The truth about brown recluse spiders is that they are as reclusive as their name implies. They won’t establish themselves in your bedroom, living room, and other common areas. They prefer to be away from activity and will typically roam around in undisturbed locations that are dusty.

  1. Contact with these spiders will most likely occur in storage rooms, attic spaces, crawl spaces, and other places you don’t go very often.
  2. Aggressiveness : The brown recluse isn’t an aggressive spider.
  3. If you enter into a space that has these spiders, they’re not going to run after you and try to bite you.

You’re not small enough to be considered prey. If you’re cautious and don’t put your hand into any holes or voids, you shouldn’t have to worry.

Can brown recluses jump?

In this country arachnophobia, the fear of spiders, ranks as one of the highest fears in the country. The only other fears that beat it out or fear of public speaking in fear of dying. Why is this? Many people fear spiders because of their looks. Many people fear spiders because of stories they’ve been told.

Spiderwebs have frighten many people. But the brown recluse is one of the more dangerous spiders. Do brown recluse spiders jump? Brown recluse spiders do not jump. The jumping spider is another spider that looks much like the brown recluse but it’s not poisonous. Brown recluse spiders are active hunters.

Jumping spiders are also hunters. Jumping spiders are much more stocky in appearance because they have to be more muscular to be able to jump on their prey. The brown recluse spider is, as its name implies, a recluse seeking to hide. Brown recluse spiders do not seek out humans and try to get away from us at every opportunity.

When was the last brown recluse death?

In the past decade, more than 300 people have been struck and killed by lightning in the United States, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. During that same time, the grand total of U.S. deaths by brown recluse spider bite: 0ne.

That doesn’t include the case of Branson Riley Carlisle. The rarity of the case of the Alabama boy who died Nov.23 has drawn attention in the scientific community. According to records by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, the last death in the United States by a brown recluse spider was in 2004.

In Alabama, the last death by any kind of spider was in 2002, according to state health statistics. Now it’s true all deaths may not get recorded. But the disparity is indicative, not of how dangerous lightning is, but how unlikely a brown recluse will kill you.

But it does happen. Jessica Carlisle, 23, of Albertville, watched her son decline Nov.23, after being bitten that Sunday morning. Branson died despite heroic rescue efforts at Huntsville Hospital for Women & Children more than 14 hours later. “This is a tragic event and a very rare event and people need to think of this as very unlikely happenstance,” said Rick Vetter, a retired entomology research associate at the University of California Riverside and one of the nation’s top experts on brown recluses.

Jessica had the presence of mind to save the spider and photograph it. Additionally, she photographed her son’s bite wound at 15 minutes, 1 hour and 9 hours after the bite. All of this allowed for confirmation that it was a brown recluse. Mike Howell, a retired Samford University professor who co-authored “Spiders of the Eastern United States: A Photographic Guide,” confirmed through the photographs that the spider that bit Branson was a brown recluse.

  1. It is indeed a brown recluse spider,” Howell said.
  2. And, there is the classical tissue necrosis of the boy’s back.
  3. This confirms that this spider’s bite can sometimes be very serious, especially if the toxin becomes systemic.” A systemic response occurs in less than 1 percent of brown recluse bites.

Although that type of reaction can result in death, it is rare, Vetter said. Usually the brown recluse’s venom stays local, and in some cases, not all cases, it can be very nasty, causing necrosis of the skin, leaving victims with deep scars or skin cavities due to dead tissue having to be removed.

When there is a systemic response, it will occur most likely in children or those with a weakened immune system, he said. There is rupture of the red blood cells which releases hemoglobin into the blood stream. One of the symptoms, Vetter said, is a darkening of the urine, about the color of a cola drink as the venom starts destroying red blood cells and the hemoglobin is freed up and clogs up the kidneys leading to a breakdown in the organ.

As awful as that sounds, Vetter said many times a brown recluse bite is minor and self-healing. Vetter and other scientists say that often brown recluses get wrongly blamed for bites or skin conditions. “We get a lot of reports of recluse bites, but it’s really MRSA misdiagnosed as a recluse bite,” said G.B.

Edwards, an arachnologist at Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. MRSA or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a staph infection that can be very dangerous because it is resistant to the usual antibiotics. These kind of conditions simulate the skin eroding effects of a brown recluse bite.

“The recluse is unusual in that it has an ingredient in its venom that breaks down cell walls,” Edwards said. “In that regard it’s like rattlesnake venom.” Vetter has done much work debunking misdiagnosed brown recluse bites. He said he has heard reports of brown recluse bites from many places in the United States that don’t even have the spiders – such as Colorado, Montana and Maine.

In one case the patient had lymphoma, not a spider bite. The brown recluse spider is found in an area from Texas to the west, Illinois to the north, all of Alabama and parts of Georgia and Florida to the south. Brown recluse spiders do like to live in homes but they typically don’t intrude upon the human dwellers.

On Vetter’s website is a story of a woman in Lenexa, Kansas, who collected 2,055 brown recluse spiders in six months in her 1850’s built home. A family of four had been living their eight years and no one had been bitten. If you purchase a product or register for an account through one of the links on our site, we may receive compensation.

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What kills brown recluse spiders?

Insecticides – The most reliable way to kill brown recluse spiders is with an insecticide. If there’s an infestation, some brown recluses will always be able to avoid sticky spider traps and diatomaceous earth, particularly egg-laying females. For your safety and that of your family, the benefits of using synthetic pesticides outweighs the risk as long as you use them as directed by the manufacturer.

  • Fortunately, many broad-spectrum pesticides like cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin are also effective against brown recluse spiders.
  • These are available in spray, liquid, and dust forms.
  • All of these are best used in targeted areas—that is, sprayed or blown into cracks and crevices where brown recluses are likely to be hiding.

Whole-house foggers are rarely effective. Follow the directions on the insecticide packaging and keep it away from children and pets. Once again, it’s a good idea to start with prevention methods to seal your home and glue traps to determine where to start treatment.

How painful is a brown recluse?

Initial bite – Brown recluses have very small fangs, and their bite is usually painless. Unless you saw it happen, at first, you might not even be aware that a spider has bitten you. You may start to notice a red, tender, and inflamed area about 2 to 8 hours after the spider bit you.

What spider kills you instantly?

1. Funnel web spider – Getty Images The venom from this spider is packed with at least 40 different toxic proteins, which can overload the body’s nervous system and reportedly kill someone in minutes, “With a funnel web bite to the torso, you’re dead,” Dr. Robert Raven of the Queensland Museum has said, “No other spider can claim that reputation.”

How venomous is a daddy long legs?

Is there any truth to this oft-repeated tale? – Daddy-longlegs (Opiliones) – these arachnids make their living by eating decomposing vegetative and animal matter although are opportunist predators if they can get away with it. They do not have venom glands, fangs or any other mechanism for chemically subduing their food.

Therefore, they do not have injectable toxins. Some have defensive secretions that might be toxic to small animals if ingested. So, for these daddy-long-legs, the tale is clearly false. Daddy-longlegs spiders (Pholcidae) – Here, the myth is incorrect at least in making claims that have no basis in known facts.

There is no reference to any pholcid spider biting a human and causing any detrimental reaction. If these spiders were indeed deadly but couldn’t bite humans, then the only way we would know that they are toxic is by milking them and injecting the venom into humans.

  • For a variety of reasons including Amnesty International and a humanitarian code of ethics, this research has never been done.
  • Furthermore, there are no toxicological studies testing the lethality of pholcid venom on any mammalian system (this is usually done with mice).
  • Therefore, no information is available on the likely toxic effects of their venom in humans, so the part of the myth about their being especially dangerous is just that: a myth.

There is no scientific basis for the supposition that they are deadly and there is no reason to assume that it is true. What about their fangs being too short to penetrate human skin? Pholcids do indeed have short fangs, which in arachnological terms is called “uncate” because they have a secondary tooth which meets the fang like the way the two grabbing parts of a pair of tongs come together.

  • Brown recluse spiders similarly have uncate fang structure and they obviously are able to bite humans.
  • There may be a difference in the musculature that houses the fang such that recluses have stronger muscles for penetration because they are hunting spiders needing to subdue wandering prey whereas pholcid spiders are able to wrap their prey and don’t need as strong a musculature.

So, again, the myth states as fact something about which there is no scientific basis.

What is the most fatal spider bite?

Brazilian Wandering Spiders ( Phoneutria fera and P. nigriventer ) – These species are sometimes also referred to as banana spiders because they are frequently found on banana leaves. They have an aggressive defense posture, in which they raise their front legs straight up into the air.

Phoneutria are poisonous to humans, and they are considered to be the deadliest of all the world’s spiders. Their venom is toxic to the nervous system, causing symptoms such as salivation, irregular heartbeat, and prolonged, painful erections (priapism) in men. Scientists are investigating the venom of P.

nigriventer as a possible treatment for erectile dysfunction. In late 2013, a family in London, England, had to move out of their home so it could be fumigated, because it became infested with tiny Brazilian wandering spiders. An egg sac deposited in a banana bunch was shipped to the family’s local grocery store.

What kind of spiders have 6 eyes?

Using Spider Eyes for Identification – Arachnologists use spider eyes to help classify and identify spiders, Because 99% of spiders have eight eyes and the number of eyes can vary even within members of one species, the arrangement and shape of eyes is often more helpful than the number. Even then, the details of the spider’s legs and spinnerets are more useful for identification.

Eight Eyes : The day-active jumping spiders (Salticidae), flower spiders (Thomisidae), orb weavers (Araneidae), cobweb weavers (Theridiidae), and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are common spiders with eight eyes. Six Eyes : Several spider families have species with six eyes. These include the recluse spiders (Sicariidae), the spitting spiders (Scytodidae), and some of the cellar spiders (Pholcidae). Four Eyes : Spiders belonging to the family Symphytognathidae and some spiders in the Nesticidae family have four eyes. Two Eyes : Only spiders belonging to the family Caponiidae have two eyes. Vestigial or No Eyes : Species that live exclusively in caves or underground may lose their sight. These spiders typically belong to families that have six or eight eyes in other habitats.

Do any spiders have 7 eyes?

How Many Eyes Do Spiders Have? – The answer depends on the species of spider. The majority of spiders—about 99 percent—have eight eyes. Some spiders, however, have six, four, two, or even no eyes at all! The arrangement of a spider’s eyes can be helpful in identifying what family it belongs to.

Do spiders have 8 or 6 eyes?

Spiders usually have eight eyes but few have good eyesight. Spiders usually have eight eyes (some have six or fewer), but few have good eyesight. They rely instead on touch, vibration and taste stimuli to navigate and find their prey. Most are able to detect little more than light-dark intensity changes which stimulate nocturnal web building, hunting or wandering activities and rapid movement to allow quick reactions against daytime predators (e.g.

What spider has 12 eyes?


Caponiidae Temporal range:
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Caponiidae Simon, 1890

Do any spiders have 10 eyes?

Like most spiders, jumping spiders have eight eyes arranged in four pairs. (Photo via Shutterstock) In nature and beyond, more doesn’t always mean better. Case in point: spiders and their eyes. Most spiders have eight eyes, but most don’t have good vision, according to the Australian Museum.

  • Instead, spiders rely on vision and a combination of other senses — vibration, touch and taste, for example — to make their way in the world.
  • More than 34,000 different spider species exist, and one of the ways they are categorized into families is by the number of eyes they have and how they are arranged, according to the University of California-Santa Barbara ScienceLine,

And while most spiders have eight eyes arranged in pairs, not all do. Some species do not have any eyes, while others have as many as 12, National Geographic reports. Spiders that have fewer or even no eyes are still able to hunt and stalk prey, but they have different adaptations to help them find food.

  • For the most part, when spiders have more than two eyes, all their eyes are used for vision, but not all eyes see in the same way.
  • Typically, the eyes most central to the spider’s face are used to detect the size, shape and color of nearby objects, ScienceLine reports.
  • Eyes further to the sides of the head detect motion.

While many spiders have poor vision despite their many eyes, some do have good eyesight, which they rely on to hunt for and capture their food as well as recognize potential mate and rivals, the Australian Museum reports. Among the spiders with good eyesight are wolf spiders, flower spiders, jumping spiders and net-casting spiders.

Some spiders that are active at night, including wolf spiders, have eyes specially designed to sense movement in the dark, the Australian Museum reports. A wolf spider’s eyes even shine or glow when light shines on them. Jumping spiders, which are often active during the day, rely on their keen eyesight to hunt for prey, rather than catching it in a web like some other types of spiders do.

Because of this, one of their pairs of eyes on the side of their heads is important for what is called a “looming response,” Live Science reports. These eyes detect motion, which helps the spider sense danger and react to it. Humans and other animals have a looming response as well — it’s why you duck when someone throws something at you — but we have just one pair of eyes to collect and provide all visual input, while spiders use multiple eye pairs.

Another kind of spider with specialized eyes is the net-casting spider, which has two large eyes toward the rear of their heads that are used for night vision, the Australian Museum reports. These eyes are large to both allow as much light in as possible and also allow for a wide field of vision. Eyes aren’t the only thing spiders have eight of.

Spiders also have eight legs arranged in four pairs. The four pairs of legs is what separate spiders and other arachnids — including ticks and scorpions — from insects, which have three pairs of legs, according to Burke Museum,

Is a wolf spider a brown recluse?

How Big Are Wolf Spiders? – Wolf spiders come in many sizes and can grow to be quite large. They range from a quarter of an inch to about one and a half inches in length. Because they are often brown, wolf spiders are sometimes confused with the brown recluse spider,

How do you tell if it’s a brown recluse spider?

Download Article Download Article The brown recluse spider, also known as the violin spider, is a venomous creature whose bite can cause children and adults to become ill. The brown recluse is unusual because it has only six eyes (most spiders have eight) and wears a violin-shaped marking on its back.

  1. 1 Look at the color. A brown recluse has a dirt or sandy brown body with a slightly darker marking at its center; they can also be dark brown and even slightly yellow. Its legs are a lighter brown and completely uniform in color, with no additional markings.
    • If the spider has stripes or other pigments on its legs, it’s not a brown recluse.
    • If the spider has more than two pigments on its body other than the violin (and maybe a slightly darker abdomen), it’s not a brown recluse.
    • If the spider has legs that are significantly darker than its body, it’s not a brown recluse. Keep in mind slight variation can exist in shade and tone.
  2. 2 Examine the violin shape on the spider’s body. It’s a slightly darker brown color than the rest of the body, or cephalothorax. The violin shape isn’t clearly defined, so it may not look to you exactly like the musical instrument.
    • Many spiders have similar shapes on their bodies, so this alone is not significant enough to identify the spider as a brown recluse.
    • Again, look at the color of the violin shape closely. If it has spots of different pigments, then you are not looking at a recluse. However, injury or sun damage may also cause what would appear as different coloring or texture.


  3. 3 Count the eyes. The brown recluse, unlike other spiders, has only six eyes. They are arranged in pairs: one pair is in the center, and there’s a pair on either side. Because the eyes are so small, it can be difficult to see them without a magnifying glass. If you count eight eyes, you’re not looking at a recluse. (Please be safe when counting – you don’t want to conclude there are six just to have it suddenly bite you!)
  4. 4 Look for fine hairs. The brown recluse has many fine, short hairs on its body. Unlike some other spiders, it does not have spines on its body or legs. If you see a spider with spines, it’s definitely not a recluse.
  5. 5 Check the body width. The brown recluse’s body doesn’t grow to be larger than 1 ⁄ 2 inch (1.3 cm). If you’re looking at a spider that’s larger than this, it’s a different type of spider.
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  1. 1 Know what regions recluses inhabit. The brown recluse lives in the southeastern United States. Populations are established in 15 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.If you don’t live in this region, then it is highly unlikely that you will encounter a brown recluse, although it is possible. Contrary to popular myth, brown recluse spiders do not live in California.
  2. 2 Know where brown recluses like to reside. True to their name, brown recluse spiders build their webs in out-of-the way places that aren’t usually in plain sight. Brown recluses usually build webs in places that are dry and haven’t been recently disturbed. Here are a few places you may spot them:
    • Rotting bark
    • Attics
    • Basements
    • Closets
    • Sheds
    • Barns
    • Woodpiles
    • Shoes
    • Dressers
    • Toilets
    • Cardboard boxes
    • Behind pictures
    • In unused beds
  3. 3 Look for the recluse’s web. Brown recluse webs are loose, sticky, and off-white or grayish. You won’t see a brown recluse web strung between trees or walls – that type of web is built by an orb weaver.
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  1. 1 Be aware of how the bite feels, The initial bite of the brown recluse usually doesn’t cause pain. This means that you may not be aware of the bite for as long as 8 hours, at which time the bite area will become red, tender and swollen.
  2. 2 Notice other symptoms. In some cases the bite alone is the worst symptom, but sensitive people and children may develop other symptoms. Monitor your body for these symptoms that may occur:
    • Chills
    • General feeling of illness
    • Fever
    • Nausea
    • Sweating
  3. 3 Seek medical treatment. The danger with a bite from this spider is severe tissue damage, and in rare cases it can cause someone to fall into a coma. Seek medical treatment as soon as you realize you were bit by a brown recluse. Seek immediate medical attention if a child or an elderly person has been bitten; the bite of the brown recluse spider is most dangerous to such persons and can produce very severe symptoms.
    • Wash the bite area with soap and water
    • Apply an ice pack directly to the bite area for ten minutes, then remove it for ten minutes.
    • Repeat until you reach medical facilities.
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Add New Question

  • Question Are brown recluses dangerous? Dr. Samuel Ramsey is an Entomologist and a researcher with the United States Department of Agriculture. Dr. Ramsey has extensive knowledge of symbiosis and specializes in insect disease spread, parasite behavior, mutualism development, biological control, invasive species ecology, pollinator health, and insect pest control.
    • He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Entomology from Cornell University and a Ph.D.
    • In Entomology from the University of Maryland. Dr.
    • Ramsey’s research on bees has enabled researchers to develop targeted control techniques to restore honey bee populations worldwide.
    • He also hosts a YouTube series called “Dr.

    Buggs.” Entomologist Expert Answer Support wikiHow by unlocking this expert answer. The bite of a Brown Recluse has a type of necrotoxin that actually breaks down healthy human skin and flesh in a way that is frightening and conspicuous and concerning. However, it is important to know that most Brown Recluse bites do not result in that necrotized wound growing that won’t heal. That only happens for some people and it is an infrequent occurrence. It is even less likely that one will be bitten by these spiders because they are so reclusive. They tend not to spend much time interacting with human beings.

  • Question Should I be worried about being bitten if there’s a brown recluse in my home? Dr. Samuel Ramsey is an Entomologist and a researcher with the United States Department of Agriculture. Dr. Ramsey has extensive knowledge of symbiosis and specializes in insect disease spread, parasite behavior, mutualism development, biological control, invasive species ecology, pollinator health, and insect pest control.

    He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Entomology from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in Entomology from the University of Maryland. Dr. Ramsey’s research on bees has enabled researchers to develop targeted control techniques to restore honey bee populations worldwide. He also hosts a YouTube series called “Dr.

    Buggs.” Entomologist Expert Answer Support wikiHow by unlocking this expert answer. People are most frequently bitten if a Brown Recluse, for whatever reason, ends up inside of a shoe and someone sticks their foot inside, crushes it, and in its last-ditch effort to get away from what it thinks is a predator, it bites them. However, they very infrequently actually bite human beings.

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  • Shake out your seasonal items that you’ve stored away, footwear or anything kept in a dark area, before you do a lot of handling or wear them.
  • Common entry points of the brown recluse spider into your home are through vents, gaps under doors and gaps beneath siding. Plug such holes to prevent entry and vacuum/sweep up dead insects regularly to remove a desirable meal source.
  • Brown recluse spiders typically live for 2 to 4 years, and are preyed on by geckos, crickets, centipedes, and wolf spiders.

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  • The brown recluse is not a particularly aggressive arachnid; this spider will tend to only strike at you if it gets trapped against your skin – something that happens most often when you roll over in bed or put on clothing. Most bites are done in self-defense because the spider feels threatened.
  • If you live in an area where brown recluse spiders are prevalent, it is wise to shake out your bed linens and blankets before going to bed. You should also check your shoes and slippers before putting them on; this spider is likely to crawl into them during the night.
  • This spider cannot bite through clothing, so be sure to wear heavy-duty gloves and long sleeves if you are sorting through plastic bags, boxes, or other materials.

Advertisement Article Summary X A brown recluse is a brown spider that’s roughly the size of a penny. It has long, thin legs. Brown recluses have a dark brown violin-shaped marking on their thorax, and their body is covered in thin hairs. Brown recluses only have 6 eyes, while most spiders have 8.

How can you tell a brown recluse from another spider?

Identifying the Brown Recluse Spider – One can readily learn how to identify recluse spiders with less than a minute’s training. Whereas most U.S. spiders have 8 eyes, typically arranged in 2 rows of 4, the recluse spiders have 6 eyes arranged in pairs (dyads) with one anterior dyad and 2 lateral dyads (Fig.1).

All 13 species of U.S. recluses (11 native, 2 non-native) share the same eye pattern. In many publications, the violin pattern on the cephalothorax (the first body part to which the legs attach) is mentioned as a diagnostic characteristic (Fig 2). Although it is quite consistent in adult brown recluses (although it can fade in preserved specimens), many western U.S.

recluse species and some young brown recluses have virtually no contrasting pigmentation in the violin region (Fig.3, 4). In addition, recluse spiders have abdomens that are devoid of coloration pattern and their legs are covered with fine hairs but lack thickened spines.

Figure 1 Figure 2
Close-up of the cephalothorax of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, (from Missouri) showing the pattern of 6 eyes arranged in dyads (photo by R. Vetter ©) A preserved brown recluse spider showing the strongly contrasting and well-defined violin pattern on the cephalothorax as well as the patternless abdomen covered with fine hairs. (photo by R. Vetter ©)


Figure 3 Figure 4 A desert recluse, Loxosceles deserta, (from near Indio, Calif) showing the lack of a strongly defined violin pattern. (photo by R. Vetter ©) The cephalothorax of a preserved desert recluse showing the characteristic recluse eye pattern and a uniformly colored cephalothorax (photo by R. Vetter ©)

Misidentification of spiders as brown recluses is not uncommon both in the lay and medical communities. Many of these mistaken spiders are similar in only one trait with actual recluse spiders, with some only sharing the characteristics of brown color and eight legs.

Six-eyed spiders Spitting spiders ( Scytodes spp,, Family Scytodidae) are taxonomically related to recluses, are non-poisonous and probably often mistaken as recluses throughout the U.S. They share the same eye pattern (Fig.5), however, the several known species have black stripes and/or maculae on the dorsal surface of both the cephalothorax and abdomen which should quickly eliminate them as recluse spiders (Fig.6).

In addition, in side view, the cephalothorax is definitively humped (Fig.7), an anatomical modification necessary for housing the large spitting glands that are only found within this genus.

Figure 5 Figure 6
The eye pattern of a closely related, non-poisonous spitting spider ( Scytodes sp.) (photo by R. Vetter ©) The body coloration of this spitting spider should immediately disqualify it as a potential recluse spider even though it has the recluse-like eye pattern. (photo by R. Vetter ©)

The woodlouse spider ( Dysdera crocata, Family Dysderidae) (Fig.8) has six eyes which are grouped closely together in triads near the anterior margin of the cephalothorax. Despite this and the lack of bodily pigmentary pattern, the woodlouse spider is commonly misidentified as a brown recluse. It is found throughout the U.S.

Figure 7 Figure 8
A side view of the spitting spider (a different species from the previous 2 figures) showing the high-domed cephalothorax, a feature unique to this spider genus. The first 2 legs have been removed for ease of photography. (photo by R. Vetter ©) The woodlouse spider, Dysdera crocata, has 6 eyes but they are all grouped at the front of the cephalothorax and the spider lacks bodily markings. (photo by P.K. Visscher ©)

Spiders with “violin” markings There are several common and ubiquitous non-poisonous U.S. spiders that have dark markings on the cephalothorax which are erroneously and creatively misinterpreted as the violin marking of a brown recluse. These include the long-legged cellar spiders ( Psilochorus spp.

  1. Physocyclus spp.
  2. Family Pholcidae) (Fig.9) and pirate spiders (Mimetus spp., Family Mimetidae) (Fig.10).
  3. On the Pacific coast, the marbled cellar spider, (Holocnemus pluchei, Family Pholcidae) has often been submitted by the public as a recluse despite the fact that its brown “violin” pattern is on its sternum and ventral abdomen (Fig.11).

All of these spiders have eight eyes although some eyes are quite reduced in size or obliterated from view by black pigment; microscopic examination is needed to see them.

Figure 9 Figure 10
This 8-eyed cellar spider ( Psilochorus utahensis ) is frequently mistaken for a brown recluse because of the darkened area on its cephalothorax (photo by D. Boe ©, property of Univ. Calif. Riverside Entomology Research Museum) This 8-eyed pirate spider ( Mimetus hesperus ) is another spider mistaken for a brown recluse because of its cephalic markings (photo by D. Boe ©, property of Univ. Calif. Riverside Entomology Research Museum)

Other brown arachnids

Figure 11
The marbled cellar spider, Holocnemus pluchei, is repeatedly confused by the public as a brown recluse despite the fact that the brown markings are on the ventral surface of the body. (photo by R. Vetter ©)

Fearing that they might have recluse spiders, the public has brought in many other brown, eight-eyed spiders in addition to non-spider arachnids such as solpugids and daddy-long legs. The latter is differentiated from spiders in that it has one major body part as opposed to two, lacks venom glands, does not make silk and therefore, is not found in webs except as spider prey.

Unfortunately, the urge to misidentify common, virtually harmless spiders as brown recluses is not restricted to the lay community. Although bites from the brown recluse and other recluse spiders can be a source of significant morbidity, diagnoses implicating these spiders as the culprits should be restricted to those regions of the country that support populations of the spiders.

On a broader scale, spider bites in general are overdiagnosed. A call for more judicious evaluation has been made several times. Spider bites are the result of an incidental and accidental encounter between arachnid and human. In areas outside the range of recluse spiders, it has been suggested that physicians consider more strongly as differential diagnoses, many of those arthropods (fleas, hard ticks, soft ticks, mites, bedbugs, assassin bugs, etc.) that purposely seek out humans for their blood meals rather than the accidental spider encounter.

Wounds from these animals could stem from reactions to the animal’s saliva, to toxins or to bacteria introduced while feeding. Stringent guidelines have been put forth in attempt to stem the overdiagnosis of spider bites. Verified spider bites require the presence or sighting of a spider in the act of biting.

In the absense of this, a necrotizing wound should be evaluated thoroughly for infectious, thrombotic, and vasculitic causes. Without verification, the diagnosis of necrotizing spider bite should be one of exclusion. Richard Vetter, M.S., is a Staff Research Associate in the Department of Entomlogy, University of California Riverside.

He studies the systematics, distribution, and public health impact of arachnids in Southern California. To assist the medical community in identifying spiders and differentiate those with medical significance from harmless varieties, Mr. Vetter has kindly volunteered to identify spiders sent to him. Please place the spider in alcohol in a leakproof vial with a note describing the circumstances of finding the spider as well as the location and date of collection.

Richard Vetter Department of Entomology University of California, Riverside Riverside, CA 92521 fax (909) 787-3086

What is the distinguishing feature that identified a brown recluse spider?

For laypersons, the most distinguishing feature of a brown recluse is a dark violin-shaped mark on its back, with the neck of the violin pointing toward the rear (abdomen) of the spider. This feature is consistent in adult brown recluses, but sometimes less obvious in younger spiders.