Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes?

Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes
Trivia –

Riley is the first character to be a location. In the teaser trailer, Riley with her mom and dad are eating from Chinese food boxes of the same type as the one seen in A Bug’s Life and several other Pixar films. In said teaser trailer, the playground seen in Riley’s is taken from Sunnyside Daycare in Toy Story 3, Both of Riley’s parents have brown hair and brown eyes, suggesting her blonde hair and blue eyes were inherited recessively. Riley is left-handed. This is shown when she is drawing on the walls as a toddler and how she shoots the puck in hockey. She also uses her left hand when she is eating. Riley used to stick her tongue out when she drew, according to Joy. Riley and are the only characters in the film to have emotions of both genders.

According to, this was done to make them as diverse as possible, while the emotions of other persons were uniformized for quick readability. He states that it’s “a little phony, but hopefully people don’t mind.” When going into the minds of various characters, the film (and even ) seems to suggest that have emotions of the same gender while all adults’ emotions are the same gender (, ).

Riley’s yelling, screaming, and crying when she was a toddler are actually recycled recordings of Boo’s shouting and crying from Monsters, Inc.

Coincidentally, both Monsters, Inc. and Inside Out were directed by Peter Docter., Boo’s original voice actor, is even listed under additional voices for this film.

Riley’s original home in Minnesota might be a reference to director Pete Docter, who was also originally from Minnesota. Riley is inspired by Pete Docter’s daughter, Elie (the voice of Young Ellie in Up ). As a child, she was outgoing and goofy. When she turned eleven, she became more introverted and quiet. She is known to have coulrophobia and arachnophobia, a fear of clowns and spiders, respectively. Riley makes a cameo in Finding Dory when she and her class go see Destiny. She is based on Usagi Tsukino from Sailor Moon by Naoko Takeuchi. In the video game Disney Infinity 3.0, Joy mentions that Riley likes kittens. Riley’s Joy is shown to unintentionally mistreat Sadness in Inside Out,

Can two brown haired parents have a blonde baby?

How can two brown-haired parents have a blond child? The genetics of hair color is still a bit of a mystery, but we do know a few things. I’ll give you a mostly-true answer first, and then dive into the ugly details if you’re still with me. If two brunette parents have a blond child, that means they had to have instructions for making blond hair hidden in their DNA.

How could blond-making DNA be hiding in every cell of a brunette person’s body without them growing any blond hair? The answer lies in understanding ‘dominant’ and ‘recessive’ features. You probably know that DNA is organized into small pieces called genes, which help control how our bodies are built.

And your genes can come in different versions, called alleles, Let’s pretend that there’s just one gene that controls hair color, with a ‘brown’ and a ‘blond’ allele. Seems simple enough, right? You have the blond allele, you have blond hair. Brown allele, brown hair.

But there’s a catch – you have two copies of each of your genes. You got one from each of your parents. What happens if you got a ‘brown’ allele from your mother, and a ‘blond’ one from your father? It turns out that brown hair is dominant, That means that even if only one of your two alleles is for brown hair, your hair will be brown.

The blond allele is recessive, and gets covered up. If two brunette parents have a blond child, they had to have instructions for making blond hair hidden in their DNA. You can think of recessive alleles as t-shirts, and dominant ones as jackets. If you wear one of each, only the jacket will be visible.

  • In the same way, features created by recessive alleles only show up if there isn’t a dominant allele around.
  • Since you have two copies of each gene, that means the only way to have a recessive feature like blond hair is for both of them to be the recessive allele.
  • Having one of each will leave your hair brown, even though you’ll secretly be carrying the blond allele in every cell of your body.

This is what both of our brown-haired parents had going on. They were secretly wearing blond shirts under their brunette jackets, and when it came time for each of them to pass down one item of clothing to their kid, they both gave the shirt! Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes Image by G. Riesen With this analogy, you can also see how two blond parents should never have a brown-haired child. Since they’re both blond, they must each have two blond t-shirts and no brunette jacket. No matter which genes they pass down, their kid should end up blond.

  • That being said, don’t dust off your family tree just yet – remember I said there were ugly details? For the most part the idea of a single brown/blond gene matches how hair colors are really passed down.
  • If you add in a second gene with a recessive allele that makes red hair you’ve got a decent model of most hair colors and a nice story to go with it.

But as usual when it comes to nice stories, reality isn’t quite so simple. To get to the root of things, we’ll need to learn about the cells that color our hair: melanocytes. Melanocytes make the pigment that gives our body color: melanin, There are two types of melanin in your hair, eumelanin and pheomelanin, Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes Image by G. Riesen So what controls how much of each type of melanin your melanocytes make? As you might imagine, lots of different genes can impact how these cells work. In fact, dozens of genes involved in everything from building your hair’s roots to repairing DNA have been found to affect hair color.

  1. Unlike in our mostly-true model, there isn’t just one gene that controls melanin levels.
  2. Skin and hair color are both what we call polygenic features: they depend on a bunch of different genes working together, with more still being discovered.
  3. To make things worse, two people can have all of the same genes but still have different hair colors! Hormones can change the way that genes work, which often causes blond hair to get darker as children get older.

With more age, melanocytes can start to die off, leading to inkless, gray/white hair. Stress, sunlight, smoking, and eating poorly can also cause hair color to fade. It’s a bit like those little printers are breaking, or simply running out of ink! I bet there’s a whole lot of money to be made in hair, if only someone could figure out how to keep melanocytes healthy longer As you can see, there’s a lot going on here.

Hair color is just one feature that comes from the combined efforts of all of a person’s genes plus their environment. We can identify some big-picture patterns like the dominance of brown hair over blond, but we need more detailed models to explain colors like strawberry blond or how color changes with age.

Lots of scientists are still working to build better models of how people’s genes create their hair colors and other features. If you really want to know exactly how it works, you’ll have to join them and do your own research – maybe you’ll discover how to un-gray hair, or even reverse aging itself! These kinds of mysteries show up at the bottom of any question, if you dig far enough.

Why do blondes have blue eyes?

Is eye color connected to hair color? Yes, it is! You might also notice that people with brown hair typically have brown eyes. Skin color also often fits in this trend: people with lighter hair and skin often have light eyes. And people with darker hair and skin usually have dark eyes.

  1. The color of our hair, skin, and eyes is determined by the same thing: the amount of pigment they have.
  2. The pigment that causes dark hair, skin, and eyes is called melanin,
  3. Melanin is made in special cells in the body called melanocytes.
  4. If your melanocytes produce a lot of melanin, you’re likely to have darker skin, hair, and eyes.

If your melanocytes don’t make much melanin you’ll have lighter color skin, hair, and eyes. But you asked about blue eyes specifically, not just light-colored ones. Well this gets into why we only see brown, blue, and green eyes (typically). to learn more about some rare eye colors.

The iris of your eye (the colored part) is where melanin can be found. People with dark eyes have a lot of melanin in their iris. This dark melanin pigment makes the eyes look brown. And since melanin can absorb light, they look even darker! But what about blue? Your eyes can’t make a blue pigment, so why do we see different colors? It turns out blue eyes aren’t actually colored blue! This is the same way that the sky and water aren’t actually blue, even though it appears that way to us.

This blue color is made by light scattering when it hits blue eyes (or the sky or ocean!). Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes The blue color in eyes and water is made by scattering light. Image from Eyes with no melanin scatter all the light, making them appear blue. An iris with a lot of melanin absorbs light, making it appear darker. And an iris that has some melanin will absorb some light and scatter the rest, making it appear green. Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes Green eyes have some brown pigment that absorbs some of the light and scatters the rest. Image from There’s another layer to this. The production of melanin is determined by your DNA. We generally talk about different traits as independent. For example, whether you are tall or short does not affect whether you need glasses! But the genes for eye, skin, and hair color are different.

  • These genes are tightly “linked”, meaning that they’re usually all inherited together.
  • This is why people typically have either all light features, or all dark features.
  • It’s still possible to get a combination of shades of hair, eyes, and skin, but it’s less likely.
  • You’ve probably noticed that all people in certain regions of the world tend to either have lighter or darker skin, hair, and eyes (complexions).

That’s because if two parents have lighter complexions then they will pass on the melanin producing genes that produce only a little bit of melanin. If two parents have different complexions, these genes can get mixed around a bit. If one parent has a darker complexion and the other has a lighter complexion, then their children could have a mix of light or dark hair, eyes, and skin. Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes Parents with different complexions can have kids with intermediate colors. Image from Imagine if there was a region where most people had lighter complexions. As the population grows and people have babies, the genes for less melanin will become more common.

What are the rarest natural hair colors?

You learn something new every day; what did you learn today? Submit interesting and specific facts about something that you just found out here. – : TIL The rarest natural hair color in the world is red, with only 1-2% of the world population having natural red hair. Second is blond, with 3%, then brown/brunette, with 11%, and finally black with

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What hair color is dominant?

The Truth About Dominant and Recessive Genes – You may have learned in high school that traits like hair color, eye color, and more are determined by dominant and recessive genes. For hair color, the theory goes:

Each parent carries two alleles (gene variants) for hair color. Blonde hair is a recessive gene and brown hair is a dominant gene.

A brunette may have two brown hair alleles or one brown allele and one blonde allele. However, a blonde person must have two recessive blonde genes.

If two brunette parents both have a recessive blonde gene, there’s a 25% chance they’ll each pass down their recessive gene, resulting in a blonde child.

Because blonde people carry only the recessive blonde genes, they can only have blonde children.

However, as you now know, it’s more complicated than that. After all, this “Punnett Square” model only considers the alleles that regulate the amount of eumelanin produced (MC1R). It doesn’t acknowledge the which controls pheomelanin production and red hair, or any other genes.

Do natural blondes exist?

Blond (male) or blonde (female), also referred to as fair hair, is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin, The resultant visible hue depends on various factors, but always has some yellowish color. The color can be from the very pale blond (caused by a patchy, scarce distribution of pigment) to reddish “strawberry” blond or golden-brownish (“sandy”) blond colors (the latter with more eumelanin).

  1. Occasionally, the state of being blond, and specifically the occurrence of blond traits in a predominantly dark or colored population are referred to as blondism,
  2. Because hair color tends to darken with age, natural blond hair is significantly less common in adulthood.
  3. Naturally-occurring blond hair is primarily found in people living in or descended from people who lived in the northern half of Europe, and may have evolved alongside the development of light skin that enables more efficient synthesis of vitamin D, due to northern Europe’s lower levels of sunlight.

Blond hair has also developed in other populations, although it is usually not as common, and can be found among natives of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji, among the Berbers of North Africa, and among some Asians. In Western culture, blonde hair has long been associated with beauty and vitality.

Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, was described as having blonde hair. In ancient Greece and Rome, blonde hair was frequently associated with prostitutes, who dyed their hair using saffron dyes in order to attract customers. The Greeks stereotyped Thracians and slaves as blond and the Romans associated blondness with the Celts and the Germans to the north.

In the ancient Greek world, Homer ‘s Iliad presented Achilles as what was then the ideal male warrior: handsome, tall, strong, and blond. In western Europe during the Middle Ages, long, blonde hair was idealized as the paragon of female beauty. The Norse goddess Sif and the medieval heroine Iseult were both significantly portrayed as blonde and, in medieval artwork, Eve, Mary Magdalene, and the Virgin Mary are often shown with blonde hair.

Do Europeans have black hair?

Distribution – Black hair is known to be the most common in the countries of Asia and Africa, Though this characteristic can also be seen in people of Southern Europe and France, it is less common. People of Celtic heritage in Ireland with such traits are sometimes known as the “Black Irish”.

  • Black hair can come in a variety of textures, just as any hair color.
  • Generally, the East Asian population has straight, black hair with a very thick cuticle layer and South Asians have thick wavy or curly hair, while the general hair type seen in black African hair is thick, curly and dense with more hair growing from the head.

The curly quality comes from the shape of the hair follicle, as straight hair grows from more circular hair follicles, and curly hair grows from more oval-like follicles. Hair is naturally reflective, so black hair is not completely dark in bright light.

Which skin color is dominant?

The Genetics and Evolution of Skin Color: The Case of Desiree’s Baby Developed by Patricia Schneider. Copyright 2003 National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, Used with permission. Grade Levels: 9-14 Subject Matter: Biology, Physical Anthropology, Genetics Time Allotment: 1-2 class sessions Description: This lesson plan explores the genetics and evolution of skin color, using a short story by Kate Chopin called “Desiree’s Baby” as a starting point. OVERVIEW Students will explore the genetics of skin color and theories about its evolution by pondering the mysteries of Kate Chopin’s short story “Desiree’s Baby,” which was first published in 1893. It is a story of race and gender in antebellum Louisiana.

Desiree is deeply in love with her husband, Armand, and he is a loving husband and a proud father until he notices their infant’s dark skin. Because Desiree was abandoned as a child, her ancestry is unknown. Armand concludes that she is not white and tells her to leave. His rejection drives Desiree to take her own life and that of the baby.

In the last line of the story, Armand discovers that he is also of mixed ancestry. Students read the story and then discuss a set of questions about genetics probing the puzzle of how Desiree’s baby can have a darker skin color than either Desiree or the baby’s father, Armand.

Students then use an AaBbCc Punnett Square to explore polygenetic skin color inheritance. Finally, students will read assigned background articles and write an analytical essay scrutinizing various theories accounting for the evolution of different skin colors. The case was developed for urban community college students in their first semester of general biology.

The course curriculum is organized around the general theme of evolution. By the time the case is introduced, students have covered evolution, biochemistry, cell biology, and Mendelian genetics. The case is also appropriate for anthropology and biology courses for non-majors.

  • RACE – The Power of an Illusion Episode 1: The Difference Between Us (on video or DVD)
  • “Desiree’s Baby” and other handouts (below)
  • “Skin Deep” article by Nina Jablonski and George Chaplin in the October 2002 issue of Scientific American

OBJECTIVES Students finishing this case will be able to:

  • Explain polygenetic inheritance
  • Describe the inheritance of skin color
  • Discuss the “sunscreen” and “vitamin” hypotheses of skin color evolution
  • Write a short essay summarizing the key points in a popular science article

LESSON PLAN The short story and the accompanying three parts of the case were designed to be presented using the progressive disclosure method (for more information on this method, also known as the Interrupted Case Method, see ) Part I: A Mendelian Approach (20 minutes)

  1. Distribute copies of the short story Desiree’s Baby ( Handout #1 ) as a reading assignment.
  2. Have the students work in small groups to answer the questions at the end of the short story handout.
  3. Discuss the answers together as a class. Note that most classes quickly agree on answers to all the questions except for number 4. Many students feel that skin color must follow a simple dominant / recessive pattern, even though this could not explain the intermediate phenotype of “biracial” individuals.

Part II: Skin Color is a Polygenetic (Multiple Gene) Trait (20 minutes)

Display the following skin color inheritance chart for the class by copying it onto the chalkboard or using a computer projector or overhead transparency.

The following Punnett square shows the possible offspring from a cross between two individuals of intermediate skin color. AaBbCc X AaBbCc (each square shows the number of dark skin alleles in the genotype)

Gametes ABC ABc AbC Abc aBC aBc abC abc
ABc 5 AABBCc 4 AABBcc 4 AABbCc 3 AABbcc 4 AaBBCc 3 AaBBcc 3 AaBbCc 2 AaBbcc
AbC 5 AABbCC 4 AABbCc 4 AAbbCC 3 AAbbCc 4 AaBbCC 3 AaBbCc 3 AabbCC 2 AabbCc
Abc 4 AABbCc 3 AABbcc 3 AAbbCc 2 AAbbcc 3 AaBbCc 2 AaBbcc 2 AabbCc 1 Aabbcc
aBC 5 AaBBCC 4 AaBBCc 4 AaBbCC 3 AaBbCc 4 aaBBCC 3 aaBBCc 3 aaBbCC 2 aaBbCc
aBc 4 AaBBCc 3 AaBBcc 3 AaBbCc 2 AaBbcc 3 aaBBCc 2 aaBBcc 2 aaBbCc 1 aaBbcc
abC 4 AaBbCC 3 AaBbCc 3 AabbCC 2 AabbCc 3 aaBbCC 2 aaBbCc 2 aabbCC 1 aabbCc
abc 3 AaBbCc 2 AaBbcc 2 AabbCc 1 Aabbcc 2 aaBbCc 1 aaBbcc 1 aabbCc 0 aabbcc

The offspring of this cross exhibit seven shades of skin color based on the number of dark skin alleles in each genotype.

  1. Distribute Handout #2 and ask the students (working in small groups) to determine the number of offspring with each skin color. If time permits, have them use the number of offspring with each skin shade to plot a bell-shaped curve on the chalkboard.
  2. Discuss the results together as a class. Ask the students what they think someone with the aabbcc genotype might look like. Many students incorrectly assume that such an individual is an albino. Note that aabbcc individuals are not albinos; they have fair skin (like Northern Europeans) due to low melanin production while albinos have no pigmentation in their skin, hair, and eyes because they lack the enzyme tyrosinase needed for melanin production. Albinism is inherited as an autosomal recessive at another locus. Two recessive albinism alleles at the tyrosinase gene locus will prevent expression of the genes (A, B, and C) that govern the amount of melanin production. This gene interaction is called epistasis. Students sometimes raise the issue of Michael Jackson’s skin color. He is said to suffer from viteligo, an autoimmune disorder that destroys melanin producing cells.
  3. Any class time that remains could be devoted to a discussion of other polygenetic traits such as height, body build, intelligence, and Type II diabetes. Note that gene expression is often influenced by the environment. Sunlight can darken skin just as nutrition can affect height. Also, be sure to note that since different traits are influenced by different genes, they are inherited independently one from another. Skin color is not an indication of any other trait, be it height, blood type, or intelligence.

Part III: Evolution of Skin Color

  1. Begin this part of the lesson by showing the following video, which explores the science of human variation: RACE – The Power of an Illusion, Episode 1: The Difference Between Us, If you only have time to screen the segment on skin color, begin the video at 23:41 (with Stephen Jay Gould saying: “My favorite trivia question in baseball.”) and play through 28:03 (ends with Joseph Graves saying: “Oh, this is the place where we go from the light race to the dark race.”). If you are using the DVD, go to scene 8. (To further explore how race is socially constructed, see Episode 3: The House We Live In, Note that in this episode (DVD Scene 7), historian James Horton describes how southern states had different laws defining who is “black,” so that some individuals could literally change race by crossing state boundaries.)
  2. Have students read “Skin Deep” by N. Jablonski and G. Chaplin in the October 2002 issue of Scientific American. NOTE: This article is available online for a fee. For alternative readings that can be found online at no cost, follow these links: a. “A New Light on Skin Color” – National Geographic Online Extra b. Transcript of radio interview with Nina Jablonski about her skin color research c. California Academy of Sciences article about Jablonski’s work
  3. Give students one week to complete the writing assignment below: Using details on the evolution of skin color from the Jablonski/Chaplin article, write an essay in your own words that discusses both the “sunscreen” and “vitamin” hypotheses and answers the following question: DNA analysis indicates that we are all descended from a single ancestral group of Africans. If we are all “out of Africa,” why are there so many different skin colors? Ask your students to provide a thorough explanation addressed to students who missed the last few class sessions. The assignment should be typewritten and no more than one page in length.
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FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY The Sorting People section of this Web site is an interactive game allowing students to experience the diversity of skin colors and other traits across “racial” groups. Click here to open a new window and access the game or point your students to, Click on “Learn More” then “Sorting People” then “Explore Racial Traits.” ASSESSMENT Students can be evaluated according to their class participation and their essay can be graded using a holistic scale (Bean, 1996). Individual learning can also be assessed on the next unit exam by questions pertaining to the genetic and evolutionary principles emphasized in the short story, the scientific articles, the written assignment, and class discussions. ANSWER KEY An answer key to the questions posed in this lesson is available to teachers via the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) website. In order to access the answer key, you will first need to obtain a password from the NCCSTS. To do this, complete the application form at, Please allow 3-4 business days for a response. BLOCKS OF ANALYSIS Polygenetic Inheritance One of the reasons why Mendel was so successful in working out the basic principles of heredity was that he studied simple traits. He chose traits in the garden pea, which appeared in two distinctly contrasting (either-or) forms, e.g., tall vs. short plants, yellow vs. green pods, and smooth vs. wrinkled seeds. A single gene controls each of these traits. Few characteristics follow this simple pattern of inheritance. Most traits result from the additive effect of many genes mediated by the environment. These polygenetic traits are characterized by small gradations in phenotype, known as continuous variation. Graphing the distribution of one of these traits produces a bell-shaped curve in which extreme values are much rarer than intermediate values. Environmental factors influence the expression of polygenetic traits – e.g., poor nutrition limits height, sun exposure darkens skin color. Inheritance of Skin Color Skin color is largely determined by the amount of melanin. Dark-skinned individuals produce more melanin than light-skinned individuals. At least three genes regulate the amount of melanin produced. Each gene has two forms: dark skin allele (A, B, and C) and light skin allele (a, b, and c). Neither allele is completely dominant to the other, and heterozygotes exhibit an intermediate phenotype (incomplete dominance). Each dark skin allele in the genotype adds pigment by increasing melanin production. There are seven different shades of skin color ranging from very light (aabbcc) to very dark (AABBC); most individuals have the intermediate skin color (AaBbCc). A cross between two individuals with intermediate skin color produces offspring with a range of phenotypes (bell-shaped curve). Evolution of Human Skin Color It appears that our earliest modern human ancestors (Homo sapien sapiens), who lived 100 – 150,000 years ago in eastern Africa, had dark skin to protect them against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation. Many scientists used to believe that dark pigmentation evolved in Africa as a “sunscreen” to protect against skin cancer. However, this could not be the only selective pressure since most deaths from skin cancer occur only after reproductive age. According to the most recent theory, different skin colors evolved to ensure reproductive success by regulating the production of two critical vitamins. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) catalyzes the synthesis of vitamin D, which is required for absorption of calcium and development of the skeleton. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets, a crippling bone disease. But overexposure to UV radiation will break down vitamin B folate (folic acid), which is necessary for fetal neural development and fertility. Anthropologist Nina Jablonski theorizes that dark skin evolved near the equator. There, UV radiation penetration is high enough to stimulate vitamin D production while the dark skin protects against the breakdown of folate. Light skin evolved when early humans migrated to the high latitudes where UV radiation is much lower. The amount of melanin gradually decreased to facilitate vitamin D synthesis under low UV conditions. Today, as a result of recent migrations, many individuals do not live in the climate for which their skin is adapted. Dark-skinned people in high latitudes can get their vitamin D from sources like fish, while light-skinned people in the tropics can protect against folate breakdown by covering up with clothing. RESOURCES Allman, W.F.2002. Eve Explained: How Ancient Humans Spread Across the Earth. Blake, E.2000. Why Skin Comes in Colors. Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.2002. Biology (6th ed), San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings. Cummings, M.R.2003. Human Heredity, Principles and Issues (6th ed), Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. Goodman, A.H.2000. Why Genes Don’t Count (for Racial Differences in Health). American Journal of Public Health, 90(11):1699-1702. Holden, C.1991. New Center to Study Therapies and Ethnicity. Science 251(4995):748. Jablonski, N.J., and G. Chaplin.2002. Skin Deep. Scientific American 278(4):74-81. Jablonski, N.J., and G. Chaplin.2000. The Evolution of Human Skin Coloration. Journal of Human Evolution 39(1):57-106. Kirchweger, G.2001. The Biology of.Skin Color. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. National Center for Biotechnolgy Information (NCBI). MendelWeb Solomon, E.P., L.R. Berg, and D.W. Martin.2002. Biology (6th ed), Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. Pacific Grove, CA. Chopin, K.1893. Desiree’s Baby. REFERENCES Bean, J.C.1996. Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. RELATED STANDARDS From Mid-Continent Research for Learning and Education at Life Sciences Standard 4 Level IV (Grades 9-12): Knows ways in which genes (segments of DNA molecules) may be altered and combined to create genetic variation within a species (e.g., recombination of genetic material; mutations; errors in copying genetic material during cell division) Knows that new heritable characteristics can only result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in an organism’s sex cells; other changes in an organism cannot be passed on Knows that mutations and new gene combinations may have positive, negative, or no effects on the organism Understands the concepts of Mendelian genetics (e.g., segregation, independent assortment, dominant and recessive traits, sex-linked traits) Knows features of human genetics (e.g., most of the cells in a human contain two copies of each of 22 chromosomes; in addition, one pair of chromosomes determines sex ; transmission of genetic information to offspring occurs through egg and sperm cells that contain only one representative from each chromosome pair; dominant and recessive traits explain how variations that are hidden in one generation can be expressed in the next) Life Sciences Standard 7 Level IV (Grade 9-12) Understands the concept of natural selection (e.g., when an environment changes, some inherited characteristics become more or less advantageous or neutral, and chance alone can result in characteristics having no survival or reproductive value; this process results in organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments) Knows how natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the diversity and unity of past and present life forms on Earth (e.g., recurring patterns of relationship exist throughout the fossil record; molecular similarities exist among the diverse species of living organisms; the millions of different species living today appear to be related by descent from common ancestors)

Do you get hair color from Mom or Dad?

Is Hair Color Inherited from Mother or Father? – Hair color comes from both parents through the chromosomes passed onto their child. The 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) have genes made up of DNA with instructions of what traits a child will inherit.

Can a redhead have a blonde child?

A Redhead and a Brunette – This pair would most likely give birth to an auburn or chestnut-haired child. It is also possible to have a blonde or brunette child if the redhead parent was carrying small amounts of eumelanin on a separate allele. If the redhead parent were auburn-haired or strawberry blonde, that possibility would increase.

Why is my white hair turning dark again?

Nutritional deficiencies – If you eat a balanced diet, chances are that your gray hairs aren’t linked to any nutritional deficiencies. If your diet lacks certain nutrients, it could very well affect melanin production in your hair follicles. Vitamin B-12 is the most common culprit, with folate, copper, and iron deficiencies increasing your risk, too.

Does white hair age you?

5. Don’t assume that grey hair makes you look older – Hair naturally loses pigment as we age, but stylist Paul Falltrick points out that the notion that grey hair makes you look older is increasingly becoming a misnomer: “Grey shades can be stereotyped as ageing, but a clean-looking grey is stunning” he says.

  • Just ask your hair colourist for a light-reflective shade.” Nicola recommends “white and platinum if you’d like to keep your look natural or consider blue and ash tones if you’re after a more edgy grey.” Prefer to go grey naturally? An in-salon gloss will add mirror-like lustre.
  • Glow to Go at John Frieda Salons, from £125 including a blow dry, will enhance and brighten your grey tones while sealing in hydration and shine for up to eight weeks.

To give grey hair some gleam at home, a hair glaze offers luminosity and colour that lasts beyond a single rinse. Wella Professionals UK colour trend expert Zoë Irwin recommends boosting grey hair with a tinted glaze such as Wella Professionals Color Fresh Mask in Pearl Blonde, £15.60. Inside Out Why Does Riley Have Blue Eyes Jamie McCarthy Getty Images Sarah Jessica Parker is embracing going grey naturally

Can white hair turn black again?

Can White Hair Turn Black Again? – Genetic or age related greying of hair cannot be reversed. However, greying related to diet, pollution, bleaching and stress can be slowed down with a balanced diet and a good hair care regimen. Know your hair to figure out hair care that suits your hair.

What color hair will my baby have if both parents have brown hair?

How Does Hair Color Get Passed Down – Keeping in mind that determining hair color isn’t quite this easy, in general here’s how these common scenarios play out between our dominate and recessive hair color genes: Black hair: Black hair is both the most common hair color worldwide, and is typically the dominant trait.

  • It is non-blending with lighter colors, meaning if you or your partner have black hair, odds are your offspring will have black hair.
  • Brown hair: Being brunette allows for a little more flexibility, but this is based off what unexpressed alleles both parents are carrying around, and how many shades of brown there are.

In a blonde-brunette pairing, there is a chance for a blonde child, though the odds are more in favor of a brunette child. In a brunette-brunette pairing, your offspring will likely have a shade of brown. In a black-brunette pairing, the child will likely have black hair, but could end up with a shade of brown.

Helpful, right? Genetics are weird. Blonde hair: Blonde is a recessive trait, and a blonde-blonde pairing would result in blonde offspring. Red hair: Red hair is a whole different ball game and is classified as an “” meaning it’s neither dominate or recessive. Instead, when a baby receives a red allele from a parent, it blends with whatever allele it receives from the other parent.

So, if baby gets a red allele from mama, and a blonde allele from dada, it will be strawberry blonde. If instead of blonde from dada, it gets brown, baby will be auburn. A true redhead is a rare bird. Embrace them as such. This is really just the tip of the iceberg, but you get the point.

See also:  Why Is Green Eyes So Rare?

Can brown haired people have a blonde baby?

Can two blonde parents have a brunette kid? – Since brown hair is a dominant trait, at least one of the parents would have to have brown hair. But since they’re both blondes, the brunette gene can’t exist, otherwise the parents would have shown brown hair. While brunettes can have blonde children, blondes cannot have brunette children. |

Is brown hair dominant over blonde?

Genetics – What Role Does It Play In Hair Colour? | Farjo Hair Institute 21st June 2021 The question of hair colour is an interesting one, determined entirely by your parents’ genetic code. The science of hair genetics still isn’t completely understood, but there’s lots that we do know. Cast your mind back to your secondary school science lessons, and you may recall ‘dominant’ and ‘submissive’ genes and how these control things like our eye and hair colour.

  1. Everybody has two copies of each of their genes — one copy from their mother, and one from their father.
  2. If the genes relating to hair colour are both the same (they both point towards brown hair, for example) then your hair will most likely be brown.
  3. But, if they are different, then the dominant gene will take precedence.

And, we know that brown hair genes dominate over blonde, redhead and other colours. That means that the only way to have blonde or red hair is to have two matching recessive genes.

Can two redhead parents have a blonde child?

I have the blessing of having ginger hair. If my partner also has ginger hair, what are the chances of our children being ginger too? | Notes and Queries | I have the blessing of having ginger hair. If my partner also has ginger hair, what are the chances of our children being ginger too? Ginger, London

  • One in four.
    • Simon, Hinchley Wood, UK
  • No one deserves that much bad luck.
    1. Arfan Amar, Newcastle-upon-Tyne UK
  • Thankfully none, if you refrain from reproducing.
    • Vincent Chuilon, London UK

My understanding is that ginger hair is a recessive trait. You only get regressive traits if both of the relevant genes are for that trait, from which it follows that if both parents show the same recessive trait, then the children must also have it, unless gene-mutation takes place. Thus my answer is that your children are almost certain to be ginger too. Now compare this answer with the previous ones and decide for yourself which one to believe. Pelham Barton, Birmingham U.K.

  • I many be wrong but I thought red hair was a recessive trait. For a recessive trait to be expressed the individual must be pure breeding, hence two red heads can not produce any other colour in a child. If red hair is dominant, the chances are one in four that a child will NOT be a red head if mum and dad are both ginger nuts. However human genetics are slightly more complicated than Mendel’s pea plants. Factors on other chromosomes may affect the outcome.
    1. G. Baker, Ockendon, UK
  • Hello, firstly, i do not want any further mockery from people as i too have ginger hair and i have plenty of people who admire the colour. Now, basically, as a medical student i know a bit more about genetics and i can tell you that hair colour is actually a polychromosomal phenomenon and so relies on more than simple Mendelian principles. Basically, ginger is somewhere in the middle of the hair colour spectrum and so it is more likely that to ginger haired parents will give rise to ginger haired children although is not a 100% certainty, it would be possible to have a brown haired child but more likely, the child would have ginger or blonde hair.
    • Darren Leaning, Scunthorpe UK
  • I think it’s got more to do with the water quality in the area in which you live – Brighton is FULL of people with ginger hair!!
    1. Johanna Burley, Brighton UK
  • I myself have come first in the gamble of life and been blessed with ginger hair. Firstly I would like to say that as a geneticist I can tell you that the spawn of 2 red headed parenrs would almost certainly suffer the same ‘fate’; secondly as an attractive woman I would like to add that out of all the hair colours I have sported throughout my life, including blonde, my natural shade has attracted the most attention, jealousy and admirers.
    • Alex Falconer, N London UK
  • Shurely Brighton is full of people using henna? Personally I have a bit of a ‘thing’ for the ginger girls. ask anyone. May your children and your children’s children’s children carry the flag!
    1. Kyle, Woking UK
  • The only people I have ever met that were glad to go grey or bald were those who had ginger hair when they were young. It is almost certain that you will produce ginger sprogs, so I suggest that when you do, you shave their heads or dye them grey to give them a head start with their preferred looks.
    • Hugh Jarse, Sidcup England
  • Please, please, please wear a condom.
    1. Helen, Cheshunt Hertfordshire
  • According to my superstitious mother, if you pour out tea from a pot that’s been brewed by someone else, you will be blessed with ginger twins. So why take the genetic lottery when you can make sure in a simple and refreshing way that your kids will be coppertops?
    • Brian Haines, London UK
  • Now correct me if I’m wrong- but I’ve been looking into this myself. For a child to be born with red hair (which IS a recessive gene), each parents must have 2 red alleles each. If say, the mother had one red allele and one brown, and it was the same for the father, then the child would be born with brown hair, because the brown gene is dominant. So for red hair to come through, both parents muct have both alleles as RED.
    1. Erin, Staffordshire England
  • I suggest that you perform an empirical test by producing sufficient children in order to get some idea of the distribution of hair colours. Having forty or fifty kids would be a good start (the more the better as far as statistical tests are concerned). Then write back in to N&Q and let us all know.
    • Jake, Davis USA
  • Moving the subject on slightly, I have just had a baby and there appears to be a hint of red in her hair. What is the likely hood of her being ginger? I have dark brown hair that shines red and my husband has mousey-coloured hair. There are no ginger bobs in the family that I am aware.
    1. Suzanne, Oxfordshire
  • There is nothing wrong with being ginger. I don’t get everybody’s problem. I have ginger hair myself i was bullied at school and felt forced to dye my hair. There isn’t many ginger haired people. That’s why everyone takes the piss- because we’re different and everyone else is the same. Boring!
    • Jacqui,
  • Hair colour is dependent on 2 pigments: Eumelanin and pheomelanin. The less eumelanin you have, the more blond you are. The more eumelanin you have then the darker your hair is. The so called “red element” that people talk about is dependent on the amount of pheomelanin you have, The strawberry blond is obviously relatively equal amounts of both. Both you and your husband may have slightly different amounts of the pigment mentioned above. Since the gene for red hair is recessive, then it is quite likely that you will give rise to ginger offspring.
    1. Lee, Zug, Switzerland
  • If both parents are ginger, their offspring would be ginger. Reason: We inherit half our chromosomes for our father (23) and half from out mother (23), 46 in total. If both parents passed on a ginger ‘infected’ hair colour chromosome, the child would be ginger. If one parent passed on a non-ginger chromosome, and the other a ginger chromsome, the child would be non-ginger, since everything other than ginger is dominant over ginger. Ginger is a recessive trait. With no dominant trait present in either parents, they can only pass on the recessive ginger trait to their offspring. How non-gingers often end up producing gingers: Example – two black haired parents give birth to a ginger child. How? Both parents have to be carriers of a ginger ‘infected’ chromosome. They have one ginger and one black each. The black would dominate the ginger, making them have black hair. Neither would realise this, as all they would know is that their hair is black. They could both pass on the black, which would produce a black haired child, one could pass black and one ginger, also a black haired child, but if both passed on their ginger, the child would be ginger. If one parent is ginger, but the other has no ginger gene, then their offspring would never be ginger, although all would carry the gene.
    • Victoria, Solihull UK
  • My husband and I are expecting, both of us have ginger hair and both of us would love a ginger child also. Neither of us were particuarly bullied at school, If we were then we didn’t notice or care! Red hair makes you stand out from the crowd, it’s how you let that make you feel that counts. I wasn’t short of boyfriends and my husband did well with girls too. So all those ‘wear a condom’ type comments.what a joke! At least a ginger person CAN dye their hair if they want to to escape the bullies. Ignorance is a much less easier traits to hide, it shines from the very tip of your biggoted brains! It’s an ugly thing to be so unkind to people because of their hair colour. In fact it borders on the ridiculous. Simple people, ugly minds and blackened hearts. I wish you all a ginger baby! Then we’ll see how you view red heads. Or maybe a ginger grandchild.what on earth would you do then?! How utterly silly.
    1. Catherine Badham, Worcester, England
  • I completely agree with you Catherine, people are simple-minded and it is a form of prejudice when they bully gingers! It does make me mad, however the Pixar film ‘Brave’ has given redheads a positive representation as beautiful and powerful. My partner and I are also redheads and look forward to ginger babies.
    • Sarah Davies, Hull, England
  • I agree with both of you. There aren’t many gingers in Portugal, so I get really surprised when I see that it actually exists people who hates ginger. I think it’s so ridiculous people that think that way of such a beautiful color and it’s just a shame I can’t see it more often in here. I have dark brown hair and my partner has red hair. I wouldn’t mind at all (I would love) to have ginger kids. But in this case, I don’t really know what’s the chances.
    1. Marina, Portugal
  • I’m hoping to get a ginger girl and am ginger myself. I’ll let you know how I get on.
    • Jake, horsham uk
  • She said no
    1. jake, horsham uk
  • This is rather quite funny, I’ve always wondered this. I’m a red head but my parents and my brothers and sisters don’t have red hair, and I have a child who has turned out to look nothing like me: tanned, blue eyes, mousey hair. I don’t get all the stupid comments about red hair. I’ve never been bullied, or dyed my hair. I get a pretty good tan and I’ve had quite a few boyfriends who’ve all been sexy as.
    • Nikki, United Kingdom

: I have the blessing of having ginger hair. If my partner also has ginger hair, what are the chances of our children being ginger too? | Notes and Queries |