What Eyes Glow Green At Night?
- Pieter Maas
Identifying Nocturnal Animals – Folks seem to go back and forth about the best type of bulbs to use for eyeshine and, in the past, it was incandescent all the way. Now, with the advances in LED technology, it seems you can use both. Light ratings will vary between animals, but for many, the sweet spot seems to be between 160-230 Lumens, or 40,700 to 58,525 candlepower.
Reflective color Shape of the eyes Eyelid shape over the pupil Pupil slit orientation
If the pupil is in a parallel pattern to the eye oval and is glowing red, you’re probably encountering a wild canine such as a coyote or wolf, which means you may want to turn tail and vamoose! Red fox eyes are more akin to cat’s eyes with a perpendicular pupil and a red glow.
Foxes can be recognized apart from other canines based on their pupil and their angled oval shape, which is a sharp contrast to the rounder curved oval eye shape of dogs. Felines, both big and small, will have a heavy upper eyelid, and a pupil that is perpendicular to the shape of the eye. The eyes of cats will grow green in light at night.
Deer, on the other hand, will have a larger and rounder, less oval, shape. As the light reflects their eyes, you will most likely see a red or green reflection almost absent of pupils. If you happen to see large round eyes set closer to the ground, you have encountered a black bear.
Black bear’s eyes are nearly pupil-less and glow red or green. Finally, if you’ve encountered large pupils set in glowing yellow eyes somewhere in a high branch or rafter, you’ve definitely spotted an owl! Spotting nocturnal wildlife by their eyeshine can be a fun adventure, but also one you should take very seriously.
You should always be prepared, especially if you happen to encounter a dangerous animal while on one of your nighttime excursions. Right now, we’re offering 20% off all items in our store, so there’s no better time to buy a quality flashlight, get out there and identify some animals!
What eyes glow at night?
Related Young Naturalist Links : Animals that display the brightest eyeshine, such as the bobcat, have more rods (light receptors) and fewer cones (color receptors) in their retinas than animals with no eyeshine. As a result, they have excellent night vision, but most are color-blind.
- Until primitive man discovered fire, making it possible for him to light up the night, he probably was unaware that certain animals have eyes that seem to glow in the dark.
- Imagine how frightened he must have been the first time he looked beyond the comforting circle of his campfire light to see a pair of shining eyes watching him from the darkness.
With his limited knowledge, he didn’t know the glowing eyes were the result of reflected light—not the work of demons or supernatural creatures. Perhaps you shared his twinge of fear the first time you saw glowing eyes in the woods, especially if you were sitting around a campfire telling ghost stories or listening to those strange night noises that stir the imagination.
- Even though some of you may not have had the opportunity to see a wild animal’s eyes shine, you probably have caught a glimpse of this reflected glow in the eyes of a pet dog or cat.
- Eyeshine occurs when light enters the eye, passes through the rods (light receptors) and cones (color receptors) of the retina (image surface), strikes a special membrane behind the retina, and is reflected back through the eye to the light source.
This special mirrorlike membrane, called the tapetum (ta-PEA-tum), is not present in the human eye. We have dark-colored cells behind our retinas, which absorb light rather than reflect it. The majority of animals displaying eyeshine also are nocturnal animals. Most of the animals with eyeshine are night hunters, and their ability to use the available light twice, once on the way in and again on the way out, gives these nocturnal animals additional light to see by.
The majority of these glowing eyes belong to mammals, but spiders, alligators, and bullfrogs are a few other creatures with reflecting eyes. Some night birds also have eyes that glow in the dark, but their eyes do not have a tapetum layer. Scientists are still trying to solve the mystery of their source of eyeshine.
An interesting sidelight is that animals with the brightest eyeshine generally have more rods and fewer cones in their retinas. As a result they have excellent night vision, but most are color-blind. Eyeshine coloration varies from the glowing reddish orange of the alligator to the yellows and greens of the deer and cat families. Although eyes with eyeshine are said to glow in the dark, they actually do not glow – they reflect available light. Light enters the eye, passes through the retina, and strikes a mirrorlike membrane called the tapetum. The tapetum reflects the light back through the eye to the light source.
Eyeshine coloration varies with the species, amount of light, and the direction from which the light strikes the eye. Alligator eyeshine may vary from a bright reddish orange to an iridescent pink. Because eyeshine is directed back to the light source, you must be in the right spot to be able to see it, usually directly behind the light.
To increase your chances for seeing eyeshine, watch the roadsides carefully when riding in a car at night. The headlights often are reflected in the eyes of animals by the sides of the road. While walking at night with a flashlight, shine it in an arc around you and try to catch its reflection in the eyes of night creatures just beyond its circle of light.
- At times dozens of spiders’ eyes will reflect from patches of tall grass.
- Notice the eyes of your pet dog or cat as it approaches a lighted patio area, and you may be at the right angle to see its eyes reflect.
- Those of you who have a cooperative cat might like to try this experiment.
- On the back of a small hand mirror draw a one-quarter-inch circle.
Remove the silver from the circle to form a peephole. Get as close to your cat’s eye as possible while looking through the peephole. The reflective side of the mirror should face the cat. Turn off all lights except for one small lamp located across the room from you or let a friend shine a small flashlight in your direction. Cat eyes vary from yellowish gold to bright green. Information on eyeshine is very sketchy, but perhaps one day further research into the subject will reveal some of its secrets. In the meantime we can but wonder about eyeshine, another mystery of nature.
What eyes see best at night?
Adjusting to Darkness: How Our Eyes See at Night It’s escaped no one’s attention that this year’s name is also the term for sharp vision—2020. So let’s check out your vision in the sky! Plus, here are some fun facts about how long it takes for our eyes to adjust to darkness and whether your night vision is affected by your eye color.
- The human eye is amazing and uses different modes to see during the daytime and to see at night, and can also Living in Full Color: Photopic Vision People who move from a city into a rural area are often spooked by the darkness.
- City streetlights provide enough brightness to let our retina’s cone-shaped cells operate.
This yields “photopic vision” which lets people see sharply, and in color. Seeing in the Dark: Scotopic Vision But at night in the country, we only get to use our rod-shaped cells, which bestows scotopic vision. Scotopic kicks in when things are dim, but its not a great way to perceive the world.
First off, rods are colorblind. Next, there’s not a single rod lurking in the middle one degree of vision; So in low light situations we suffer a one degree blind spot straight ahead, twice the size of the moon. (There’s also a second, better known blind spot present in bright light. But this one’s off to the side, and we don’t usually notice it: If an object is hidden at the blind spot of one eye it will be seen by the other.) Another quirk of rods is that they’re very slow-acting, which is why night sensitivity takes at least 5 minutes. When you first switch off your bedroom lights, you probably see nothing at all. After a few minutes, things in the room become obvious. On top of all these failings, scotopic vision only delivers 20/200, ten times less sharp than photopic vision. You’ve always sensed the truth of this. Sharp details (like the creases in that shirt you tossed onto the chair), which are so obvious when the lights are on, now become a blur in the dim light. We’re so accustomed to it, we probably associate dimness with vagueness. But it’s those darn rods again.
This is why beginners who buy telescopes are sometimes appalled at how few details appear on galaxies and nebulae, on top of them being colorless. This is why astrophotography is so important: it brings out stuff the human eye would simply never see, even through the largest telescopes.
Combining Both: Mesopic Vision Photopic vision and scotopic vision combine in low but not quite dark lighting situations. A full Moon gives just enough light to slightly get the cones going, while rods are still operating. This is called mesopic vision—both. Here, the cones operate only at their place of peak sensitivity, which happens to be blue-green.
That’s why the natural world in the country will appear that color under this month’s full moon. Suddenly, the night makes sense. A Few More Fun Facts about Night Vision
Can humans see in total darkness? Ever been in a cave when the lights are turned off? Now that’s dark! You can’t see anything—even your own finger in front of your face. Humans can see in the “dark” only if there is some starlight or, better, moonlight. Does eye color affect night sky vision ? According to some studies, there is a slight difference in vision capabilities based on eye color. Light-eyed people (with blue or green eyes) have slightly better night vision because they have less pigment in the iris, which which leaves the iris more translucent and lets more light into the eye. However, dark-eyed people tend to see better in bright sunlight and are less susceptible to glare, because darker irises act like a stronger filter for light. How long does it take to adjust to darkness ? It takes some time (20 to 45 minutes) for your eyes to adapt to the night sky or light-light conditions. Best conditions are on a night with no clouds and a full moon (try it!). When dark adapted, you can see only in black and white (no color). If light hits your face, the dyes in your eyes “bleach” and then have recover their dark-adapted vision. That’s why astronomers get annoyed when someone carelessly shines a white light in their eyes.
Avoid using a bright flashlight at a star party. Some amateur astronomers use red LED lights to view things without ruining their night vision. Of course, this means your eyes have already adpted to the darkness. Some star gazers will put on a pair of sunglasses at least 20 to 30 minutes before venturing in the dark to adjust quickly. BONUS : You’ll also receive our free Beginner Gardening Guide! : Adjusting to Darkness: How Our Eyes See at Night
What animals eyes glow blue, green at night?
Blue eyeshine occurs in many mammals; white in many fish. Green eyeshine occurs in mammals such as cats, dogs and raccoons, and famously in wolves ; red eye shine in coyote, rodents, opossums and birds.
What color do dogs eyes glow?
Published Thursday, December 15, 2016 – Ever wonder why your pooch’s eyes shine in pictures? Why do some animal’s eyes shine yellow, green, blue, or even red? Why can dogs and cats see better than humans in the dark? Can you eliminate the eye shine from your pictures? It all boils down to an iridescent structure in the back of the eye called the tapetum.
This mirror-like structure lies directly behind the retina and reflects light back through the retina. This gives the retina and it’s visual cells (the photoreceptors) a second chance to register light that has entered the eye. Most dogs have a partial tapetum, meaning that the reflective structure covers only about half of the back of the eye.
Cats tend to have a larger surface area of their fundus (back of the eye) covered with the tapetum and therefore probably see slightly better than dogs at night time. The tapetum will vary in color between species and among members of the same species.
In dogs, for example, the majority of dogs will have a yellow to green tapetum. Some breeds, notably Schnauzers, will have a beautiful blue colored tapetum. Some breeds, like the Siberian Husky, will have no tapetum and will therefore have a red eye shine. As a rule of thumb, any animal with a blue iris will have a red eye shine.
Coyote With Glowing Green Eyes
Yep, they will have “red-eye” in pictures just like people! In addition to the tapetum, there are a few other reasons why animals have superior night vision. Their pupils are larger than human pupils and therefore allow more light to reach the retina.
This also gives the camera flash a larger target to hit. A third reason for superior night vision in animals relates the visual cells called rods and cones. Rods are best suited for dim light and cones are best suited for perceiving color. Dogs and cats have a higher concentration of rods in the center of their retinas compared to people.
Don’t want the ghostly green glow in your pictures? Try taking the pictures in bright ambient light so that you don’t have to use the flash. An additional benefit of bright light is the fact that the pupil will be smaller creating a smaller target for the flash to hit.
Do human eyes glow at night?
Why Do Animals’ Eyes Glow In The Dark? – A cat’s eyes glow thanks to its tapetum lucidum. Noel Zia Lee hide caption toggle caption Noel Zia Lee A cat’s eyes glow thanks to its tapetum lucidum. Noel Zia Lee Eyes that glow in the pitch-black night make for many a scary tale. But why do some animals’ eyes glow at night? “A lot of the animals we see, especially the ones that go out at night, have a special, reflective surface right behind their retinas,” says Dr.
Cynthia Powell, a veterinary ophthalmologist at Colorado State University. That light-reflecting surface, called the tapetum lucidum, helps animals see better in the dark. When light enters the eye, it’s supposed to hit a photoreceptor that transmits the information to the brain, Powell explains. But sometimes the light doesn’t hit the photoreceptor, so the tapetum lucidum acts as a mirror to bounce it back for a second chance.
A large number of animals have the tapetum lucidum, including deer, dogs, cats, cattle, horses and ferrets. Humans don’t, and neither do some other primates. Squirrels, kangaroos and pigs don’t have the tapeta, either. And not all eyes animals’ glow the same color.
- Powell says this is due to different substances — like riboflavin or zinc — in an animal’s tapetum.
- Also,” she says, “there are varying amounts of pigment within the retina, and that can affect the color.” Age and other factors also can change the color, so even two dogs of the same species could have eyes that glow different colors.
Cats often have eyes that glow bright green, though Siamese cats’ eyes often glow bright yellow. Cat tapeta also tend to reflect a little bit more than dogs, Powell says. “One of my favorites are miniature schnauzers,” she says, which have eyes that tend to glow turquoise.
What Colour are werewolves eyes?
Eye Color –
An Alpha’s eyes glow red. Yellow is the most common eye color among Betas and Omegas. Some Betas and Omegas have blue eyes. This color difference is an indication that they have taken an innocent life. Jeff Davis says the root cause of this change comes from within the werewolf (or werecoyote). “It’s a darkening of the heart. Think of it more as spiritual.”
Teen Wolf News Quick Click Canon Werewolf Eyes Explained
Where are green eyes most common?
Rare Green Eyes – Lots of genetic traits are rare. For example, left-handedness occurs in just 10% of the world’s population, only 11% have naturally curly hair, and a mere 4% have blonde hair. But of all of the seven billion-plus people on planet Earth, only 2% can claim to have one unique trait.
- So, what is this trait so few of us have? Green eyes.
- Yes, only 2 percent of the population of the entire world have them.
- How does that compare to other colors? Brown eyes are most common, as many of you would guess, with 79% of people born with them.
- Blue is found in 8% of people, 5% of us are hazel-eyed, and 5% have eyes of amber.
Essentially, green eyes are unique. Most common in Western, Northern, and Central Europe, green eyes often point to German or Celtic ancestry. Currently, they can be found most often in Iceland, the Netherlands, Scotland, Britain, and Scandinavia. In Britain, brown eyes are, interestingly, even more rare than green eyes, with 22 percent of residents being brown-eyed.
By comparison, nearly one-third of residents have green eyes. Interestingly, green eyes may not appear in children until age three, as pigmentation takes time to form and then to appear. If eyes are, as they say, “windows of the soul,” then green-eyed have the rarest souls around. As a color, green is often associated with negative emotions like jealousy (Shakespeare’s Othello has a quote that calls envy “the green-ey’d monster”).
Still, plenty of people think green is one of the most alluring eye colors. Green eyes can be emerald- or lime-hued, creating a look that is both mysterious and attractive.
Can human eyes shine at night?
M2E1L0-2R350B300 M2E1L0-3R350B300 Here in the northern hemisphere, the autumn days are getting shorter and shorter. It’s getting darker earlier in the day, and our eyes have to adjust to dim conditions. Without the help of fire or electric lights, we humans are pretty bad at night vision. Humans lack the tapetum lucidum located in between the retina and choroid in the eyes of many nocturnal animals ( Source ). Light enters the eye and hits photo receptors in the retina. Some light, however, will miss the photo receptors and pass past the retina.
- The tapetum lucidum reflects that light and gives it a second chance to hit the photo receptors and illuminate the scene.
- Some of this light is reflected back out of the eye, which is why some animals’ eyes appear to glow in nighttime trail camera photos.
- All types of camera flash, even the low-glow infrared flash of the Snapshot Wisconsin cameras, can reflect off the tapetum lucidum and cause an animal’s eyes to light up.
(This is not the same as the red-eye effect seen in photos of human eyes which is caused by light reflecting off the blood vessel-rich choroid behind the retina.) There is variation in mineral content and structure of the tapetum lucidum, which causes eyeshine in different species – and even different breeds of dog – to look different.
deer carnivores: canids and felids grazing animals: sheep, goats, cattle, horses ferrets lemurs marsupials fruit bats ray-finned fishes and cartilaginous fishes including sharks owls and a few other nocturnal birds crocodilians including alligators (bright red eyeshine – spooky!)
Animals lacking a tapetum lucidum (not extensive):
higher apes including humans kangaroos pigs squirrels*
What causes the red eye effect? Yale Scientific Magazine. Candid Creatures: How Camera Traps Reveal the Mysteries of Nature, Johns Hopkins University Press. Why do animals’ eyes glow in the dark? NPR All Things Considered. Comparative morphology of the tapetum lucidum (among selected species), Veterinary Ophthalmology 7(1):11-22. Crystals of riboflavin making up the tape tum lucidum in the eye of a lemur, Letters to Nature. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia, Veterinary Ophthalmology.
Is white or black eyes better at night?
Dark mode is better for bedtime – By now you’re probably familiar with public (screen) enemy number one: blue light. This strain of the colour spectrum jolts our brains into a state of wakefulness by tampering with its sleep promoting apparatus and makes it harder to get a restorative night’s sleep,
- A widely circulated 2018 study demonised blue light even further by suggesting it contributed to macular degeneration, but since then this research has been denounced by the American Academy of Ophthalmology for relying on flimsy methods and not taking cells from eyes.
- Light from iPads and LED screens can produce blue-white light in quantities that affect melatonin and relatedly sleep and circadian rhythms,” says Singh.
“This could be improved by true dark mode – if it works by not using LEDs in the background. This needs more research though as it’s just become the hot new thing.” True dark modes reduces the levels of blue light emitting from our screens, but this can also be achieved to some extent by switching into night modes, that replace the harsher blue light with more melatonin-friendly orange hues, or by adjusting your colour temperature.
- However, limiting screen time entirely in the hour or two before bed is the best course of action.
- Want to know more about the future of wellbeing and happiness? This article is part of our in-depth series investigating how technology is changing wellbeing, happiness and the spaces we inhabit.
- From what drives the world’s happiest countries to the apps we use on a daily basis, we’re looking at how technologies and ideas are changing our wellbeing – for better or worse.
Click here to read more articles from this series. – Scandinavia’s reign as the happiest place on Earth is ending – High-flying CEOs are trying to brain-zap their way to happiness – The design secrets Nasa’s using to keep astronauts happy in space
Why do some people’s eyes reflect light?
If you look deep into a friend’s eyes, you may imagine that you can see his or her thoughts and dreams. But more likely, you’ll simply see an image of yourself—and whatever lies behind you. Our eyeballs are like small, round mirrors. Covered by a layer of salty fluid (tears), their surfaces reflect light just like the surface of a pond does.
|If you look closely into a person’s eye, you’ll see a reflection of the scene in front of the person. In this case, you also see the camera that took the person’s picture.|
|Ko Nishino and Shree Nayar|
From a distance, we see shiny glints in the eyes of other people, says Shree Nayar, a computer scientist at Columbia University in New York City. “If you look up close,” he says, “you’re actually getting a reflection of the world.” By analyzing the eye reflections of people in photos, Nayar and his colleague Ko Nishino have figured out how to re-create the world reflected in someone’s eyes.
|After magnifying the right eye (middle) of the person shown at the left in this high-resolution photo, a computer can use the reflections in the eye (center) to produce an image of the person’s surroundings. In this case, you can see the sky and buildings|
|Ko Nishino and Shree Nayar|
Giving computers the power to trace our gaze could help them interact with us in more humanlike ways. Such a capability could help historians and detectives reconstruct scenes from the past. Filmmakers, video game creators, and advertisers are finding applications of Nayar’s research as well.
|The pupil of the eye allows light in. The iris is the colored area around the pupil. The pupil and iris are covered by a transparent membrane called the cornea.|
Finally, under these circumstances, users know that their eyes are being followed. That may make them act unnaturally, which could confuse the scientists who study them. Nayar’s system is far stealthier. It requires only a point-and-shoot or video camera that takes high-resolution pictures of people’s faces.
Computers can then analyze these images to determine in which direction the people are looking. To do this, a computer program identifies the line where the iris (the colored part of the eye) meets the white of the eye. If you look directly at a camera, your cornea (the transparent outer covering of the eyeball that covers the pupil and iris) appears perfectly round.
But as you glance to the side, the angle of the curve changes. A formula calculates the direction of the eye’s gaze based on the shape of this curve. Next, Nayar’s program determines the direction from which light is coming as it hits the eye and bounces back to the camera.
|Flattening a circle (left) produces a geometric figure called an ellipse (right).|
The computer uses all this information to create an “environment map”—a circular, fishbowl-like image of everything surrounding the eye. “This is the big picture of what’s around the person,” Nayar says. “Now, comes the interesting part,” he continues.
|From an eye reflection, a computer can generate an environment map, which produces an image of what’s in front of a person.|
|Ko Nishino and Shree Nayar|
The computer makes these calculations rapidly, and the results are highly accurate, Nayar says. His studies show that the program figures out where people are looking to within 5 or 10 degrees. (A full circle is 360 degrees.) I spy Nayar envisions using the technology to create systems that would make life easier for people who are paralyzed.
Using only their eyes and a computer to track where they are looking, such people could type, communicate, or direct a wheelchair. Psychologists are also interested in better eye-tracking devices, Nayar says. One reason is that the movements of our eyes can reveal whether we’re telling the truth and how we’re feeling.
Advertising experts would like to know which part of an image our eyes are most drawn to so that they could create more effective ads. Also, video games that sense where players are looking could be better than existing games.
|It’s possible to figure out what a person is looking at from light reflected in an eye. In this case, the person is looking at a smiling face.|
|Ko Nishino and Shree Nayar|
Historians have already examined reflections in the eyes of people in old photographs to learn more about the settings in which they were photographed. And filmmakers are using Nayar’s programs to replace one actor’s face with another’s face in a realistic way.
Using an environment map taken from one actor’s eyes, the computer program can identify every source of light in the scene. The director then re-creates the same lighting on another actor’s face before digitally replacing that face with the first one. Making computers that interact with you on your terms is another long-term goal, Feiner says.
Your computer could let you know about an important e-mail, for example, in a variety of ways. If you’re looking away, you might want the machine to beep. If you happened to be on the phone, a flashing light might be more appropriate. And if you’re looking at the computer screen, a message could pop up.
Is it true animal eyes glow in the night?
Why animals’ eyes shine at night (but people’s don’t) Eyeshine in animals. (Illustration by Adelaide Tyrol.) Eyeshine in animals. (Illustration by Adelaide Tyrol.) I’ve taken to wandering the night lately — one of the pleasures of having a puppy. Willow, my pup, and I walk at all hours, from twilight to midnight and into the shadowy early morning. Some nights we walk under the cover of stars and moonlight, and other nights the world is so dark my black dog disappears and I wonder what exactly is on the end of my leash.
- Void of visual stimulus, any earthbound glimmer of light is noteworthy.
- One night I saw the glow of two small eyes, like gold coins caught in the arc of my headlamp.
- I watched the weasel — a long small body, and bold shimmering eyes — disappear down the crevice of a stonewall.
- Since then I’ve become obsessed with eyeshine.
Eyeshine in animals is produced by a special membrane, called the tapetum lucidum (“tapestry of light”), a reflective surface that is located directly behind the retina. When the small rays of light found in the night, like starlight or moonlight, enter the eye, they bounce off the membrane, giving the eye a second chance to use the light.
For animals that have this membrane, it is like having a built in flashlight that lights a path from the inside out. The tapetum lucidum, coupled with big eyes and lots of light-sensing rod cells, allow nocturnal mammals to see well in dark or dim conditions. But eyeshine isn’t limited to mammals. Once, while at the edge of a pond listening to the midnight chorus of frogs, my flashlight caught the glimmering, emerald-green eyes of a huge bullfrog.
And in my obsession over eyeshine, I am eagerly looking forward to the summer, when I will be searching the forest floor for the ruby red glow of a wolf spider’s eyes. I only wish that my eyes would glow, a fierce sapphire blue in the darkest of night, but although humans have many interesting adaptations, good night vision is not one of them. Eyeshine in animals. (Illustration by Adelaide Tyrol.) Eyeshine color varies by species, from the amber glow of a bobcat to the red glint of a black bear. The different colors are produced by the mineral content and the structure of the tapetum lucidum, as well as varying pigments in the retina.
There does seem to be some overlap of colors, like bobcat and raccoon having yellow/amber eyeshine. So is it at all possible to identify an animal by eyeshine color alone? According to ecologist and long-time tracker Dr. Rick van de Poll, eyeshine is somewhat variable so that even within the same species the color can look a bit different.
Factors that influence individual eyeshine color, according to van de Poll, include the age and individual chemistry of the animal, as well as seasonal variation and the angle and intensity of the light hitting the eye. But this doesn’t deter van de Poll from using eyeshine as a clue to identifying mammals.
“It’s part of the information” he said, “but you have to also be paying attention to the animal’s behavior, the shape and placement of the eyes, and how the animal moves away from the light, or if it even moves away from the light at all.” As we head out into the night, my headlamp strapped on above my eyes, I catch Willow’s red glowing eyes looking up at me.
Out in front of us is a field, and we watch a set of green/white eyes lift up and turn towards us. These eyes are high and wide. There is a stamp and a snort and the eyes are gone – starlight on the move. My light catches the flash of a white tail as the deer disappears into the night.
- Susie Spikol is Community Program Director for the Harris Center for Conservation Education in Hancock, New Hampshire.
- The illustration was drawn by Adelaide Tyrol.
- The Outside Story” is assigned and edited by, and sponsored by the of the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation, a fund dedicated to increasing environmental and ecological science knowledge.
Email for more information. A book compilation of Outside Story articles is available at, : Why animals’ eyes shine at night (but people’s don’t)